Being Lonely ...

I want to start with a single line which will be my conclusion too, "One's best friend is oneself."
Being lonely for almost one month...I felt most of the times happy and some times bore.
Apart from office hours, I spent all the time by cooking, Watching English movies sitting in room, and phone calls to dear and near ones, at last I came out of this lonely-ness a bit...

During these days I suffered from week-end phobia (Fear of week end).Week end is the maximum free time, I have to organize properly. with out frnz I cant plan any outing, so at last I used to end up in watching a movie in theater or a restaurant visit.
When I conned my past …I agnized one thing, i.e. “Lonely feelings build our life strong”
I felt so happy with the prime and sad about the mistakes in my behavior…but sure I learned a lot...
As I always believe in one saying about life...
“Life is made up of constant calls to action, and we seldom have time for more than hastily contrived answers.” ~Learned Hand
So life is like continuous learning …. Along with our age our learning graph also increases.
Among the leanings I learn about friendship, some of them are as follows

  • No need to advice or explain something unless friend asks, is nothing but insulting them. (Its nothing but you felt that, he can’t live with out your advice which is utterly wrong, no one in universe depends on others for 100 %)
  • If they really expressed and asked for also, never reveal your emotion. If you are able to sit with him/her, while they experience their feelings, is the better solution. (Never say any thing directly – example: Please cry for some time)Whenever friend is telling about problem he faced or going to face, with so much emotion, concentrate on his emotion, don’t think and try to give a solution for the problem.
  • If friend is in sad, show him your care.
  • If he/she is angry, let him speak more about his anger, don’t add your feelings here.
  • If he/she is scared, show your courage physically.
  • When ever we feel bad then we need love, a real friend plays with us and he will be there for us always.
  • When ever you are asked to stop your agitation, keep in mind strongly about it, to control your self at least before your friend.(Agitation example: You shake your leg continuously up and down repeatedly.)
  • If you are sure about your love and help, which is not making him satisfied - never afraid to say – "I don't think I can help you anymore with this”
  • Some times separation makes friendship strong… have to agree for some reasons.
"A real friend is one who walks in when the rest of the world walks out."

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Nuclear Agreement between India - USA

Source : 123 Agreement
wiki , mails
There are lot of talks about 1 2 3 Agreement between India & USA and it
almost led to the topple of Central Government.

What is 123 Agreement?
This is called 123 Agreement because this comes under USA's Atomic Power
Act Section 123.
Let's see how India's (Indians?) Sovereignty & Independence are
pledged...

(1) After this Agreement USA will supply all fuel, machinery / equipment
& technology to India for producing Nuclear Power.

(2) All these days from about 22 Nuclear Power Plants, India is
producing power as well as Atom. It's a high security / secret that
from where which is produced, how much is produced, where it is
supplied, what research is being done with that, etc. to anybody. But
if we sign this Agreement, we have to disclose these secrets and also
agree to 14 of our Nuclear Power Plants to be under the scanner of
International Atomic Power Organization.

(3) The fuel utilized to produce Atomic Power can be recycled for reuse
and this plant will be under direct supervision of IAPO.

If India does nuclear test, this agreement gets canceled. But

(1) USA will take back all the machinery / equipments / technology
supplied to India thus far.

(2) Those 14 plants will continue to be under scanner irrespective of
the status of the agreement.

On the other hand, if any of the commitments given by USA is breached by
them, then there is no clause for canceling this agreement.

The agreement is apparently like this... USA can either hug India or
slap India. India will not ask why are we hugged or why are we slapped.
On the other hand, India cannot hug or slap USA for breach of agreement.

Requirement of Power

The most important requirement for India's Economic Growth in the coming
years will be the power & infrastructure. The argument put forth
favoring the 123 Agreement says that we need Nuclear Power Production
to be increased to meet the demand.

Power Production in India

Presently following are the figures:

Thermal Power 66%

Hydel Power 26%

Solar & Wind Power 5% - Presently Rs.600 Crores are spent for producing
this power.

Nuclear Power 3% - If this is to be increased to 6%, it
requires additional Rs.50,000 Crores.

Naturally it will be wise to increase other 3 modes of power production
rather than the expensive & dangerous Nuclear Power. Isn't??
INDIA-IRAN-CHINA

USA does not like the amicable relationship between India-Iran and also
India-China. If India-China relationship gets stronger, then both these
can rule the Eastern Part of the Globe which USA wants to break as per
their divide & rule.

By signing this agreement, USA wants India to depend on it for producing
power which is going to be a crucial factor in future. There is a talk
of bringing Natural Gas from Iran to India with a big pipeline project.
USA doesn't like this proposal.

Atomic Power Technology

Whether power is produced or Bomb is produced, using Atomic power
without spoiling the infrastructure and without allowing the radiation
is always under threat. Moreover preserving the wastes coming out of
Atomic Power Plants is expensive & unsafe.

There was an accident in Three Miles Island in USA. To close this plant
nearly USD 200 Crores spent with tons & tons of concrete but yet to be
fully closed.

In an another accident at Soviet Union's Serbia Plant, even the next
generation child are affected due to the radiation.

It will be very very expensive to defuse & close down an Atomic Power
Plant than its construction cost.

France

France has got 56 Nuclear Power stations producing 73% of the country's
total power requirement. They are catching up the problem of
eliminating the wastes / emissions from out of those plants at the same
time increase the power production capacity. Government of France is
now thinking how to reduce the power consumption in the country.

Conclusion

The concept is too good("Producing energy from Atomic power") ..The agreement should have been made "Not to give full control to USA".
We should not dependent more on USA, we should not loose our integrity and security.
India is declared as independent and Republic in our preamble(first page of Indian constitution) but we are changing it ourselves.
In view of the above danger, rather than signing the agreement and
pledging India to USA, it will be prudent to increase the Solar & Wind
Energy and more importantly Hyder Power Production can be increased by
linking all rivers across India and by constructing DAMS. (Ofcourse Dam
construction projects can be given to L&T's B&F Sector:-)

The whole process of this Agreement started in the year 2005 when
Manmohan visited USA. In a span of just 2 years a major decision of
signing this agreement has taken place with political motive. On the
contrary, neither this Government nor any other earlier Central
Government could not amend the Constitution thereby nationalise the
rivers across the country thereby effectively utilise the water
resources for both Agriculture purpose and producing Hydel Power. What
an irony?

Whenever someone is helping the needy, you can't expect the TERMS AND
CONDITIONS BETWEEN THE needy and the helper to be EQUAL??? BUT

(1) the helper's ulterior motive should be seen with broad eye because
he is capable of digging a grave behind you and

(2) better to be self-sufficient and explore new avenues with available
resources.

INDIA-CHINA-USA

India is very rich in Culture, follow Religions, Value Ethics, Level of
Education is Very Good.

China is also rich in Culture, follow Religion, better disciplined.

USA does not have Culture, does not have Ethics, only want power over
others. Particularly wants a firm footing in South Asia.

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Ally (Friend) ….

Want to write some thing about my feelings about Friendship and the Friends

Imagine, If you can (I did ...that’s why this post) …You were riding a byk in rain for a long distance, toiled in summer and taking a chilled cool drink, winter at it best -showering snow and you were enjoying it from your window, you are on top of a hill in the early hours to feel the pleasure of cold zephyr in the mist.
Wherever you were in the world, whatever the time of year it is, nothing else is matter for you when a friend is beside you. And there is no doubt the moment will be perfect.
“Words cannot express such joys as a friend imparts.”

Friend ship is a valuable gift which we can share only with our friend.

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NBS Dairy Maker

It only helps people who use Remedy Software in their workplaces for the bug tracking.
In Remedy when ever you want to fill the Dairy field while raising a new Bug, You need to clearly and describe the behavior of bug with many inputs to the developer.
In that situation there are chances that we may forget some important things need to be mentioned about the bug.
So the following light wait HTML + Java Script page serves your need by allowing u to fill all the required things
Download NBS Dairy maker

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Instant quotes – Market Today

It interests the people who are more into shares trading and online watch about market.
It’s not really a great tool …but sure it helps you to see instantly the share value for a particular company . Usage is so simple, This tool contains a Text box where you will enter the symbol (ex: TCS) or code of the NSE or BSE stock which you are interested, Just pressing enter will give you the stock details.

Note : Tool uses ICICI web site as reference so please use symbols or codes as suggested in ICICI website.

Download the "Market today"

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“Hancock” On IMAX BIG screen

This week I watched “Hancock” movie at Hyderabad IMAX screen. IMAX is acronym for “Image Maximum” . IMAX is one type of film format like 35 MM, and 70 MM . It displays images in big size with more resolution. IMAX theaters are not only for entertainement sector but also for education and marketing and business sectors. There are many IMAX theaters constructed in educational premises. Though there are many IMAX theaters, the one in Hyderabad has its own specialtity, The Hyderabad, India IMAX has the world's largest display screen.
List of IMAX screens in different places

Coming to “Hancock”, its very routine superman concept movie. It stars will smith, charlize theron, and Jason bateman. Willsmith obviously the superman in movie by name Hancock. He made us laugh almost 45 to 50 mins with his drunken Superman heroism and his dialogues. I say it as complete Mass English movie. The hero introduction itself says that.
Story line is simple,
Hancock is like a super man – "Man with super powers". Ray (Jason Bateman) is a Public Relations man looking to save the world with his concept named “All hearts” and he is introduced to Hancock when a train almost runs over Ray’s car. He invites Hancock to his home for dinner as he saved his life. Ray’s son Aaron likes Hancock very much. But Ray’s wife, Mary (Charlize Theron) doesn’t like to see Hancock in her house. Which is due to twist in the story.
Like Hancock Mary also immortal being. But the Story's twist is - in the flash back Mary is Hancock's wife, both of them were separated for a specific reason that their powers diminish, as they get closer physically to each other. Hancock will be told this reason by Mary when they were in hospital as Hancock forgotten all his past in one accident. At the end to save Mary, Hancock leaves her. This is to allow them to settle down and live normal, human lives. The pair will shed their powers and become normal humans.
As there is sequence seen at the end - showing Hancock again a super man we can expect gossip Hancock part 2.
Gossip : Since long time Will smith wants Aish to act as heroine in his movies, he tried for this movie too, which Aish denied.

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Shell scripting in one minute ...

First let me clarify that this is not going to be a detailed study of shell scripting, but as the name of the post indicates, it will be a quick reference to the syntax used in scripting for the bash shell. So if you are expecting the former, then you should buy yourself a good book on shell scripting . winking
So let's move on to the content . Start your stop watch now.
Common environment variables
PATH - Sets the search path for any executable command. Similar to the PATH variable in MSDOS.
HOME - Home directory of the user.
MAIL - Contains the path to the location where mail addressed to the user is stored.
IFS - Contains a string of characters which are used as word seperators in the command line. The string normally consists of the space, tab and the newline characters. To see them you will have to do an octal dump as follows:
$ echo $IFS | od -bc
PS1 and PS2 - Primary and secondary prompts in bash. PS1 is set to $ by default and PS2 is set to '>' . To see the secondary prompt, just run the command :
$ ls l
... and press enter.
USER - User login name.
TERM - indicates the terminal type being used. This should be set correctly for editors like vi to work correctly.
SHELL - Determines the type of shell that the user sees on logging in.
Note: To see what are the values held by the above environment variables, just do an echo of the name of the variable preceded with a $. For example, if I do the following:

$ echo $USER
kbabu
... I get the value stored in the environment variable USER.
Some bash shell scripting rules
1) The first line in your script must be
#!/bin/bash
... that is a # (Hash) followed by a ! (ban) followed by the path of the shell. This line lets the environment know the file is a shell script and the location of the shell.

2) Before executing your script, you should make the script executable. You do it by using the following command:
$ chmod ugo+x your_shell_script.sh
3) The name of your shell script must end with a .sh . This lets the user know that the file is a shell script. This is not compulsory but is the normal.
Conditional statements
The 'if' Statement - evaluates a condition which accompanies its command line. Those words marked in blue are compulsory. But those marked in red are optional.
syntax:
if condition_is_true
then
execute commands
else
execute commands
fi
if condition also permits multiway branching. That is you can evaluate more conditions if the previous condition fails.
if condition_is_true
then
execute commands
elif another_condition_is_true
then
execute commands
else
execute commands
fi
Example :
if grep "linuxhelp" thisfile.html
then
echo "Found the word in the file"
else
echo "Sorry no luck!"
fi
if's companion - test
test is an internal feature of the shell. test evaluates the condition placed on its right, and returns either a true or false exit status. For this purpose, test uses certain operators to evaluate the condition. They are as follows:
Relational operators
-eq Equal to
-lt Less than
-gt Greater than
-ge Greater than or equal to
-lt Less than
-le Less than or equal to
File related tests
-f file True if file exists and is a regular file
-r file True if file exists and is readable
-w file True if file exists and is writable
-x file True if file exists and is executable
-d file True if file exists and is a directory
-s file True if file exists and has a size greater
than zero.
String tests
-n str True if string str is not a null string
-z str True if string str is a null string
str1 == str2 True if both strings are equal
str1 != str2 True if both strings are unequal
str True if string str is assigned a value
and is not null.
Test also permits the checking of more than one expression in the same line.
-a Performs the AND function
-o Performs the OR function
Example:
test $d -eq 25 ; echo $d
... which means, if the value in the variable d is equal to 25, print the value.
test $s -lt 50; do_something
if [ $d -eq 25 ]
then
echo $d
fi
In the above example, I have used square brackets instead of the keyword test - which is another way of doing the same thing.

if [ $str1 == $str2 ]
then
do something
fi

if [ -n "$str1" -a -n "$str2" ]
then
echo 'Both $str1 and $str2 are not null'
fi
... above, I have checked if both strings are not null then execute the echo command.
Things to remember while using test
If you are using square brackets [] instead of test, then care should be taken to insert a space after the [ and before the ].
Note: test is confined to integer values only. Decimal values are simply truncated.
Do not use wildcards for testing string equality - they are expanded by the shell to match the files in your directory rather than the string.

Case statement
Case statement is the second conditional offered by the shell.
Syntax:
case expression in
pattern1) execute commands ;;
pattern2) execute commands ;;
...
esac
The keywords here are in, case and esac. The ';;' is used as option terminators. The construct also uses ')' to delimit the pattern from the action.

Example:
...
echo "Enter your option : "
read i;

case $i in
1) ls -l ;;
2) ps -aux ;;
3) date ;;
4) who ;;
5) exit
esac
Note: The last case option need not have ;; but you can provide them if you want.
Here is another example:
case `date |cut -d" " -f1` in
Mon) commands ;;
Tue) commands ;;
Wed) commands ;;
...
esac
Case can also match more than one pattern with each option.You can also use shell wild-cards for matching patterns.
...
echo "Do you wish to continue? (y/n)"
read ans

case $ans in
Y|y) ;;
[Yy][Ee][Ss]) ;;
N|n) exit ;;
[Nn][Oo]) exit ;;
*) echo "Invalid command"
esac

In the above case, if you enter YeS, YES,yEs and any of its combinations, it will be matched.

This brings us to the end of conditional statements.
Looping Statements
while loop
Syntax :
while condition_is_true
do
execute commands
done
Example:
while [ $num -gt 100 ]
do
sleep 5
done

while :
do
execute some commands
done
The above code implements a infinite loop. You could also write 'while true' instead of 'while :' .
Here I would like to introduce two keywords with respect to looping conditionals. They are break and continue.
break - This keyword causes control to break out of the loop.
continue - This keyword will suspend the execution of all statements following it and switches control to the top of the loop for the next iteration.
until loop
Until complements while construct in the sense that the loop body here is executed repeatedly as long as the condition remains false.
Syntax:
until false
do
execute commands
done
Example:
...
until [ -r myfile ]
do
sleep 5
done
The above code is executed repeatedly until the file myfile can be read.

for loop
Syntax :
for variable in list
do
execute commands
done
Example:
...
for x in 1 2 3 4 5
do
echo "The value of x is $x";
done
Here the list contains 5 numbers 1 to 5. Here is another example:
for var in $PATH $MAIL $HOME
do
echo $var
done
Suppose you have a directory full of java files and you want to compile those. You can write a script like this:
...
for file in *.java
do
javac $file
done
Note: You can use wildcard expressions in your scripts.
A few special symbols and their meanings w.r.t shell scripts
$* - This denotes all the parameters passed to the script
at the time of its execution. Which includes $1, $2
and so on.
$0 - Name of the shell script being executed.
$# - Number of arguments specified in the command line.
$? - Exit status of the last command.
The above symbols are known as positional parameters. Let me explain the positional parameters with the aid of an example. Suppose I have a shell script called my_script.sh . Now I execute this script in the command line as follows :
$ ./my_script.sh linux is a robust OS
... as you can see above, I have passed 5 parameters to the script. In this scenario, the values of the positional parameters are as follows:
$* - will contain the values 'linux','is','a','robust','OS'.
$0 - will contain the value my_script.sh - the name of the script being
executed.
$# - contains the value 5 - the total number of parameters.
$$ - contains the process ID of the current shell. You can use this parameter while giving unique names to any temporary files that you create at the time of execution of the shell.

$1 - contains the value 'linux'
$2 - contains the value 'is'
... and so on.
The set and shift statements
set - Lets you associate values with these positional parameters .
For example, try this:
$ set `date`
$ echo $1
$ echo $*
$ echo $#
$ echo $2
shift - transfers the contents of a positional parameter to its immediate lower numbered one. This goes on as many times it is called.

Example :
$ set `date`
$ echo $1 $2 $3
$ shift
$ echo $1 $2 $3
$ shift
$ echo $1 $2 $3
To see the process Id of the current shell, try this:
$ echo $$
2667
Validate that it is the same value by executing the following command:
$ ps -f |grep bash
read statement
Make your shell script interactive. read will let the user enter values while the script is being executed. When a program encounters the read statement, the program pauses at that point. Input entered through the keyboard id read into the variables following read, and the program execution continues.
Eg:
#!/bin/sh
echo "Enter your name : "
read name
echo "Hello $name , Have a nice day."
Exit status of the last command
Every command returns a value after execution. This value is called the exit status or return value of the command. A command is said to be true if it executes successfully, and false if it fails. This can be checked in the script using the $? positional parameter.

Here I have given a concise introduction to the art of bash shell scripting in Linux. But there is more to shell scripting than what I have covered. For one, there are different kinds of shells, bash shell being only one of them. And each shell has a small variation in its syntax. Like the C shell for example, which uses a syntax close to the C language for scripting. But what I have covered above apply to all the shells.

Here I am attaching the links leads you to some interesting shell scripting guides and documents.
Wonderful Shell scripting online tutorial

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Hindu Rituals & Routines - Q & A

Download Source : [ pdf1 ] [ pdf2 ]
Being a Hindu I feel proud by following some of the below things, but many times I got doubts about my acts – why I am doing this? What is the eternal meaning for that? For all the below questions I got answers in attached link … so please go through the pdf, if u has the same type of questions in mind …

Why do we light a lamp?
Why do we have a prayer room?
Why do we do Namaste?
Why do we prostrate before parents and elders?
Why do we wear marks (tilak, pottu and the like) on the forehead?
Why do we not touch papers, books and people with the feet?
To touch another with the feet is considered an act of misdemeanor. Why is this so?
Why do we apply the holy ash?
Why do offer food to the Lord before eating it?
Why do we fast?
Why do we do pradakshina (circumambulate)?
Why is pradakshina done only in a clockwise manner?
Why do we regard trees and plants as sacred?
Why do we ring the bell in a temple?
Why do we worship the kalasha?
Why do we consider the lotus as special?
Why do we worship tulasi?
Why do we blow the conch?
Why do we say shaanti thrice?
Why do we offer a coconut?
Why do we chant Om?
Why do we do aarati?


Hope it clears all our normal/simple doubts ...

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Solaris 10 Zones

Zoning concept in solaris 10 is one of the interesting topic for me. I learned more about Zones by knowing the answers for my questions about it ...that's it nothing more than that ..hence As like my previous posts about other technical stuff i am going to post this as well in FAQ's manner only.
And I will share links as well as some pdf's to here.
Introduction
Solaris zones are a major new feature of Solaris 10 and provides additional facilities that were not available in previous releases of the Operating Environment. Zones allow virtual environments to run on the same physical system. Previously, the only way of compartmenting an environment was to purchase a separate server, or use an expensive high-end server, capable of physical partitioning, such as the E10K or E15K. Now you can create virtual environments on any machine capable of running the Solaris 10 Operating Environment.
Zones provide a virtual operating system environment within a single physical instance of Solaris 10. Applications can run in an isolated, and secure environment. This isolation prevents an application running in one zone from monitoring or affecting an application running in a different zone. A further important aspect of zones is that a failing application, such as one that would traditionally have leaked all available memory, or exhausted all CPU resources, can be limited to only affect the zone in which it is running. This is achieved by limiting the amount of physical resources on the system that the zone can use.
What is a zone?
A zone is a virtual operating system abstraction that provides a protected environment in which applications run. The applications are protected from each other to provide software fault isolation. To ease the labor of managing multiple applications and their environments, they co-exist within one operating system instance, and are usually managed as one entity.
What is a container?
A zone which also uses the operating system's resource management facility is then called a container. Many people use the two words 'zone' and 'container' interchangeably.
This is incorrect because containers are a technology that comprises the resource management features, such as resource pools and Solaris zones. Solaris zones are a subset of containers, so the two terms should not be used interchangeably.
How many containers can one copy of Solaris have?
While the theoretical limit is over 8,000, the practical limit depends on:
The amount of hardware resources used by the applications versus the amount available in the system. This includes the number and processing power of CPUs, memory size, NICs, HBAs, etc.
What portion of the installed zones are actually in use. For example, you can create 100 zones, each ready to offer a web service, but only boot the 10 that you need this month. The unbooted zones take up disk space, but do not cause the use of any extra CPU power, RAM, or I/O.
Consider these examples which worked:
40 zones, each running five copies of the Apache web service, on an E250 with two 300MHz CPUs, 512MB RAM, and three hard disk drives totalling 40GB. With all zones running and a load consisting of multiple simultaneous HTTP requests to each zone, the overhead of using zones was so small it wasn't measurable 
What is a global zone? Sparse-root zone? Whole-root zone? Local zone?
After installing Solaris 10 on a system, but before creating any zones, all processes run in the global zone. After you create a zone, it has processes which are associated with that zone and no other zone. Any process created by a process in a non-global zone is also associated with that non-global zone. Any zone which is not the global zone is called a non-global zone. Some people call non-global zones simply "zones." Others call them "local zones" but this is discouraged.
The default zone filesystem model is called "sparse-root." This model emphasizes efficiency at the cost of some configuration flexibility. Sparse-root zones optimize physical memory and disk space usage by sharing some directories, like /usr and /lib. Sparse-root zones have their own private file areas for directories like /etc and /var. Whole-root zones increase configuration flexibility but increase resource usage. They do not use shared filesystems for /usr, /lib, and a few others.
Waht are the types of Zones ?
There are two types of zones, global and non-global. Think of a global zone as the server itself, the traditional view of a Solaris system as we all know it, where you can login as root and have full control of the entire system. The global zone is the default zone and is used for system-wide configuration and control. Every system contains a global zone and there can only be one global zone on a physical Solaris server.

A non-global zone is created from the global zone and also managed by it. You can have up to 8192 non-global zones on a single physical systemthe only real limitation is the capability of the server itself. Applications that run in a non-global zone are isolated from applications running in a separate non-global zone, allowing multiple versions of the same application to run on the same physical server.

Non-global zones are referred to simply as zones and can be in a number of states depending on the current state of configuration or readiness for operation. You should note that zone states only refer to non-global zones because the global zone is always running and represents the system itself. The only time the global zone is not running is when the server has been shut down.
What are Non-Global Zone Root File System Models ? 
A non-global zone contains its own root (/) file system. The size and contents of this file system depend on how you configure the global zone and the amount of configuration flexibility that is required.

There is no limit on how much disk space a zone can use, but the zone administrator, normally the system administrator, must ensure that sufficient local storage exists to accommodate the requirements of all non-global zones being created on the system.

The system administrator can restrict the overall size of the non-global zone file system by using any of the following:

  • Standard disk partitions on a disk can be used to provide a separate file system for each non-global zone
  • Soft partitions can be used to divide disk slices or logical volumes into a number of partitions. Soft partitions - "Virtual File Systems, Swap Space, and Core Dumps."
  • Use a lofi-mounted file system to place the zone on. For further information on the loopback device driver see the manual pages for lofi and lofiadm.
Sparse Root Zones
When you create a non-global zone, you have to decide how much of the global zone file system you want to be inherited from the global zone. A sparse root zone optimizes sharing by implementing read-only loopback file systems from the global zone and only installing a subset of the system root packages locally. The majority of the root file system is shared (inherited) from the global zone. Generally this model would require about 100 Megabytes of disk space when the global zone has all of the standard Solaris packages installed. A sparse root zone uses the inherit-pkg-dir resource, where a list of inherited directories from the global zone are specified.

Whole Root Zones
This model provides the greatest configuration flexibility because all of the required (and any other selected) Solaris packages are copied to the zone's private file system, unlike the sparse root model where loopback file systems are used. The disk space requirement for this model is considerably greater and is determined by evaluating the space used by the packages currently installed in the global zone.

Can I create a zone which shares ("inherits") some, but not all of /usr, /lib, /platform, /sbin?
The original design of Solaris Containers assumes that those four directories are either all shared ("inherited") or all not shared. Sharing some and not others will lead to undefined and/or unpredictable behavior.
Can a zone include multiple zones (aka "is the containment model hierarchical")?
No, the model is stricly two-level: one global zones and one or more non-global zones. Only the global zone can create non-global zones, and each non-global zone must be contained within the global zone.
Can zones in one computer communicate via the network?
Both shared-IP and exclusive-IP zones can communicate via the network. The network traffic for shared-IP zones that communicate between themselves on the same machine will not leave the host, whereas network traffic will leave the host when using exclusive-IP zones.
Full IP-level functionality is available in an exclusive-IP zone. Currently exclusive-IP zones communicate with each other over the network--no communication local to the system. That communication can be restriced using IP Filter just as it can for a separate system. For shared-IP zones in one computer that communicate using IP networking,the following applies:
Inter-zone network latency is extremely small, and bandwidth is extremely high.
Can each zone run a different Solaris version?
No. All of the zones use a single underlying kernel. The version of the kernel determines the version of every container in that domain.
Can a zone include multiple zones (aka "is the containment model hierarchical")?
No, the model is stricly two-level: one global zones and one or more non-global zones. Only the global zone can create non-global zones, and each non-global zone must be contained within the global zone.
Will my software run in a zone or container?
Most Solaris software will run unmodified in a zone, without needing to re-compile.
Installation software must not assume that it can write into shared, read-only filesystems, e.g. /usr. This can be circumvented by adding a writable filesystem to the zone (e.g. at /usr/local) or using a whole-root zone.
Can some local zones be in different time zones?
Yes. Each non-global zone has its own copy of /etc/default/init, which contains the timezone setting. You can change the line starting with "TZ=". The recognized names of timezones are in /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo. For example, Eastern Standard Time in the USA is defined in the file /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/US/Eastern. To set a non-global zone's timezone to that timezone, the line in /etc/default/init would look like this:
TZ=US/Eastern
Can some non-global zones have different date and/or time settings (i.e. different clocks)?
Although different zones can have 'be' in different time zones, each zone gets its date and time clock from the same source. This means that the time zone setting gets applied after the current time data is obtained from the kernel.
If you would like the ability to have different clock sources per zone, please add a call record to RFE 5033497. [August 2005]

Command to see the configured zones on a Solaris 10 machine ?

root@sanfrancisco # zoneadm list -v
  ID NAME             STATUS     PATH                           BRAND    IP
   0 global           running    /                              native   shared
   2 sanfranciscoz2   running    /sfrandb_pool/sfranz2          solaris9 shared
   3 sanfranciscoz3   running    /sfrandb_pool/sfranz3          solaris9 shared
  13 sanfranciscoz1   running    /sfrandb_pool/sfranz1          solaris9 shared
  14 sanfranciscoz4   running    /sfrandb_pool/sfranz4          native   shared


Related posts on Solaris 10 Zones 


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Microsoft's Excel

Microsoft's Excel is one of the excellentthumbs up product to do major office works.No doubt it's name is 100 % apt for it.
I am still learning many things while exploring excel.But I always believe in "Necessity is the mother of invention". when ever I encounter a problem in Excel then only I am exploring it more ...may be due to lack of time.When ever I face an issue in MS-Excel, generally I refer the following useful link(s) which teaches me many tips and tricks.
Excel Tips & Help
Excel Cluster
MicroSoft Office Tricks
In these links we can see many examples to solve most of our problems in Excel.
And we have got good Funny stuff too...

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OSI Reference Model



Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) is a standard reference model for communication between two end users in a network. The model is used in developing products and understanding networks.OSI divides telecommunication into seven layers. The layers are in two groups. The upper four layers are used whenever a message passes from or to a user. The lower three layers are used when any message passes through the host computer. Messages intended for this computer pass to the upper layers. Messages destined for some other host are not passed up to the upper layers but are forwarded to another host.
Layer 1: The physical layer ...
This is the level of the actual hardware. It defines the physical characteristics of the network such as connections, voltage levels and timing. This layer conveys the bit stream through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier.
Layer 2: The data-link layer ...In this layer, the appropriate physical protocol is assigned to the data. Also, the type of network and the packet sequencing is defined.This layer provides synchronization for the physical level and does bit-stuffing for strings of 1's in excess of 5. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management.
Layer 3: The network layer ...he way that the data will be sent to the recipient device is determined in this layer. Logical protocols, routing and addressing are handled here. This layer handles the routing of the data (sending it in the right direction to the right destination on outgoing transmissions and receiving incoming transmissions at the packet level). The network layer does routing and forwarding.
Layer 4: The transport layer ...This layer maintains flow control of data and provides for error checking and recovery of data between the devices. Flow control means that the Transport layer looks to see if data is coming from more than one application and integrates each application's data into a single stream for the physical network. This layer manages the end-to-end control (for example, determining whether all packets have arrived) and error-checking. It ensures complete data transfer.
Layer 5: The session layer ... It establishes, maintains and ends communication with the receiving device. This layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogs between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination.
Layer 6: The presentation layer ...It takes the data provided by the Application layer and converts it into a standard format that the other layers can understand. This is a layer, usually part of an operating system, that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another (for example, from a text stream into a popup window with the newly arrived text). Sometimes called the syntax layer.
Layer 7: The application layer ...This is the layer that actually interacts with the Operating System or application whenever the user chooses to transfer files, read messages or perform other network-related activities. This is the layer at which communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. (This layer is not the application itself, although some applications may perform application layer functions.)
Layers 1 - 4 are called as "Transport Set" and Layers 5 to 7 are called as "Application set".

To know which protocols are being used in different layers we can see in the following link.
Wonderful chart describing relation between all protocols
Protocols in different Layers

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HTTP Protocol

What is HTTP Protocol ?
Hyper Text Transfer protocol - HTTP.
HTTP is a communication protocol to transfer data/information in network.
HTTP runs on top of TCP/IP.Immediate valid question is what is TCP and what is IP.
Both are simple protocols again.
TCP
(Transmission controll protocol) is responsible for making sure that the file sent from one network node to another ends up as complete file at destination.
IP(Internet Protocol) is responsible for moving the file/chunks(file split into small packets) or routing the chunks from node to destination.
So HTTP is a protocol having Web-specific features but depends on TCP and IP to get complete request and responce from one to another nodes.
The structure of HTTP is a simple request/responce sequence; a browser(mozilla) requests and a server(apache) responds.
HTTP is IETF standard,RFC 2616.
HTTP protocol has several methods like POST,GET,PUT,TRACE,DELETE etc.
HTTP is a stateless protocol, due to this hosts will not be having information about users between requests. Session will not be maintained, so developer has to write code separately to maintain the session state of user separately.
There are 4 versions released till now.(HTTP 0.9, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2).

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