Binary Digit Conversion

When ever I want to convert big numbers representing memory of Computer memory, hard disk, and data I usually use this tool to know the exact conversion easily …and quick.

If u want to download a light wait tool please download it from here …
MemoryCaliculator.htm_Download


If u want go for online tool it is here

Online tool

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DB2 FAQ's

DB2 FAQ’s
How to start db2 instance ?
As an instance owner on the host running db2, issue the following command, means login as db2 user and run the profile once from /home/db2inst1/sqllib/
$ source db2profile
$ db2start

How to stop the instance?
$ db2stop
Connect to the database as instance owner
How to stop forcefully
$ db2stop force

How to create a new instance in the DB2 ? 
Continue every thing below as root user in Unix
Make sure that you have already required groups and users exists on your db2 machine.
For ex on a AIX machine ...
bash-3.2# cat /etc/passwd | grep db2fenc1
db2fenc1:!:210:103::/home/db2fenc1:/usr/bin/ksh





bash-3.2# cat /etc/group | grep db2
staff:!:1:ipsec,esaadmin,sshd,discover,neemanga,db2fenc1
db2iadm1:!:102:
db2fadm1:!:103:db2fenc1
db2inst1:!:104:

To create proper db2inst1 user for owning the instance db2inst1 - >
 useradd -d /home/db2inst1 -s /usr/bin/ksh -g db2iadm1  -m db2inst1

To change the password for db2inst1 user
passwd db2inst1

To create the new instance by name db2inst1
/opt/IBM/db2/V10/instance/db2icrt -u db2fenc1 db2inst1

How to list the existing Databases in the Db2 ?
[db2inst1@cdsbvt1rhl bin]$ db2 list db directory

 System Database Directory

 Number of entries in the directory = 2

Database 1 entry:
....
How to create a new db2instance?
Initially you might need to create required users like
db1inst1 , db2fenc1 etc
then you have to run the below command
db2]# ./instance/db2icrt -u db2fenc1 db2inst1
DBI1446I  The db2icrt command is running, please wait.
DB2 installation is being initialized.
.....goes on.

How to set TCP IP communication for any instance ?

After running db2profile
run the command
 db2set DB2COMM
And then run
 sqllib]$ db2 update dbm cfg using SVCENAME db2c_db2inst1
DB20000I  The UPDATE DATABASE MANAGER CONFIGURATION command completed
successfully.

Once it is successfully run , stop and start db2instance.
check
db2 get dbm cfg | grep SVCENAME
How to see the current connected Database in DB2 ?
db2 => SELECT CURRENT SERVER FROM SYSIBM.SYSDUMMY1
1
------------------
CDSDB
  1 record(s) selected.
How to know the existing DB2 Version ?
db2inst1@nc041031:~/sqllib/bin> db2level
How to see the list of existing instances in DB2 ?
Db2ilist
Insert command in DB2 ?
insert into CDSSCHEMA.PLAN_DESCRIPTION (PLAN_ID,PACKAGE_ID) values ('34245324','1270803791784')
How to check the DB2 used ports after the installation ?
nc145016:/etc # netstat -an | grep 50001
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:50001           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN
nc145016:/etc # cat services | grep db2
ibm-db2         523/tcp    # IBM-DB2
ibm-db2         523/udp    # IBM-DB2
questdb2-lnchr  5677/tcp   # Quest Central DB2 Launchr
questdb2-lnchr  5677/udp   # Quest Central DB2 Launchr
DB2_db2inst1    60000/tcp
DB2_db2inst1_1  60001/tcp
DB2_db2inst1_2  60002/tcp
DB2_db2inst1_END        60003/tcp
db2c_db2inst1   50001/tcp
nc145016:/etc #
How to run db2 sql file at the prompt ?
db2 -tvf path/cds_db2_admin.sql

Drop / delete a table :
ex : 
DROP TABLE TESTUSER.EMPLOYEE    
Testuser is schema name
Employee is table name
Drop a database: For this DB should be started before executing.

Db2 drop database sample

The following SQL statement drops the table space ACCOUNTING:

DROP TABLESPACE ACCOUNTING

$ db2

as a user of the database:

$source ~instance/sqllib/db2cshrc (csh users)

$ . ~instance/sqllib/db2profile (sh users)

$ db2 connect to databasename

Create a table

$ db2-> create table employee

(ID SMALLINT NOT NULL,

NAME VARCHAR(9),

DEPT SMALLINT CHECK (DEPT BETWEEN 10 AND 100),

JOB CHAR(5) CHECK (JOB IN ('Sales', 'Mgr', 'Clerk')),

HIREDATE DATE,

SALARY DECIMAL(7,2),

COMM DECIMAL(7,2),

PRIMARY KEY (ID),

CONSTRAINT YEARSAL CHECK (YEAR(HIREDATE) > 1986 OR SALARY > 40500) )

A simple version:

db2-> create table employee ( Empno smallint, Name varchar(30))

Create a schema

If a user has SYSADM or DBADM authority, then the user can create a schema with any valid name. When a database is created, IMPLICIT_SCHEMA authority is granted to PUBLIC (that is, to all users). The following example creates a schema for an individual user with the authorization ID 'joe'

CREATE SCHEMA joeschma AUTHORIZATION joe

Create an alias

The following SQL statement creates an alias WORKERS for the EMPLOYEE table:

CREATE ALIAS WORKERS FOR EMPLOYEE

You do not require special authority to create an alias, unless the alias is in a schema other than the one owned by your current authorization ID, in which case DBADM authority is required.

Create an Index:

The physical storage of rows in a base table is not ordered. When a row is inserted, it is placed in the most convenient storage location that can accommodate it. When searching for rows of a table that meet a particular selection condition and the table has no indexes, the entire table is scanned. An index optimizes data retrieval without performing a lengthy sequential search. The following SQL statement creates a

non-unique index called LNAME from the LASTNAME column on the EMPLOYEE table, sorted in ascending order:

CREATE INDEX LNAME ON EMPLOYEE (LASTNAME ASC)

The following SQL statement creates a unique index on the phone number column:

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX PH ON EMPLOYEE (PHONENO DESC)

Alter tablespace

Adding a Container to a DMS Table Space You can increase the size of a DMS table space (that is, one created with the MANAGED BY DATABASE clause) by adding one or more containers to the table

space. The following example illustrates how to add two new device containers (each with 40 000 pages) to a table space on a UNIX-based system:

ALTER TABLESPACE RESOURCE

ADD (DEVICE '/dev/rhd9' 10000,

DEVICE '/dev/rhd10' 10000)


You can reuse the containers in an empty table space by dropping the table space but you must COMMIT the DROP TABLESPACE command, or have had AUTOCOMMIT on, before attempting to reuse the containers. The following SQL statement creates a new temporary table space called TEMPSPACE2:

CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE TEMPSPACE2 MANAGED BY SYSTEM USING ('d')

Once TEMPSPACE2 is created, you can then drop the original temporary table space TEMPSPACE1 with the command: DROP TABLESPACE TEMPSPACE1

Add Columns to an Existing Table

When a new column is added to an existing table, only the table description in the system catalog is modified, so access time to the table is not affected immediately. Existing records are not physically altered

until they are modified using an UPDATE statement. When retrieving an existing row from the table, a null or default value is provided for the new column, depending on how the new column was defined. Columns that are added after a table is created cannot be defined as NOT NULL: they must be defined as either NOT NULL WITH DEFAULT or as nullable. Columns can be added with an SQL statement. The following statement uses the ALTER TABLE statement to add three columns to the EMPLOYEE table:

ALTER TABLE EMPLOYEE

ADD MIDINIT CHAR(1) NOT NULL WITH DEFAULT

ADD HIREDATE DATE

ADD WORKDEPT CHAR(3)

GrantPermissions by Users

The following example grants SELECT privileges on the EMPLOYEE table to the user HERON:

GRANT SELECT ON EMPLOYEE TO USER HERON

The following example grants SELECT privileges on the EMPLOYEE table to the group HERON:

GRANT SELECT ON EMPLOYEE TO GROUP HERON

GRANT SELECT,UPDATE ON TABLE STAFF TO GROUP PERSONNL

If a privilege has been granted to both a user and a group with the same name, you must specify the GROUP or USER keyword when revoking the privilege. The following example revokes the SELECT privilege on the EMPLOYEE table from the user HERON:

REVOKE SELECT ON EMPLOYEE FROM USER HERON

To Check what permissions you have within the database

SELECT * FROM SYSCAT.DBAUTH WHERE GRANTEE = USER AND GRANTEETYPE = 'U'

SELECT * FROM SYSCAT.COLAUTH WHERE GRANTOR = USER

At a minimum, you should consider restricting access to the SYSCAT.DBAUTH, SYSCAT.TABAUTH, SYSCAT.PACKAGEAUTH, SYSCAT.INDEXAUTH, SYSCAT.COLAUTH, and SYSCAT.SCHEMAAUTH catalog views. This would prevent information on user privileges, which could be used to target an authorization name for break-in, becoming available to everyone with access to the database. The following statement makes the view available to every authorization name:


GRANT SELECT ON TABLE MYSELECTS TO PUBLIC
And finally, remember to revoke SELECT privilege on the base table:


REVOKE SELECT ON TABLE SYSCAT.TABAUTH FROM PUBLIC

Delete Records from a table

db2-> delete from employee where empno = '001'

db2-> delete from employee

The first example will delete only the records with emplno field = 001 The second example deletes all the records

Import Command

Requires one of the following options: sysadm, dbadm, control privileges on each participating table or view, insert or select privilege, example:

db2->import from testfile of del insert into workemployee

where testfile contains the following information 1090,Emp1086,96613.57,55,Secretary,8,1983-8-14

or your alternative is from the command line:

db2 " import from 'testfile' of del insert into workemployee"

db2 <>

db2 import from test file of del insert into workemployee

Load Command:

Requires the following auithority: sysadm, dbadm, or load authority on the database:

example: db2 "load from 'testfile' of del insert into workemployee"

You may have to specify the full path of testfile in single quotes

Authorization Level:

One of the following:

sysadm

dbadm

load authority on the database and

INSERT privilege on the table when the load utility is invoked in INSERT mode, TERMINATE mode

(to terminate a previous load insert operation), or RESTART mode (to restart a previous load insert

operation)

INSERT and DELETE privilege on the table when the load utility is invoked in REPLACE mode,

TERMINATE mode (to terminate a previous load replace operation), or RESTART mode (to restart a

previous load replace operation)

INSERT privilege on the exception table, if such a table is used as part of the load operation.

Caveat:

If you are performing a load operation and you CTRL-C out of it, the tablespace is left in a load pending state. The only way to get out of it is to reload the data with a terminate statement

First to view tablestate:

Db2 list tablespaces show detail will display the tablespace is in a load pending state.

Db2tbst

Here is the original query

Db2 "load from '/usr/seela/a.del' of del insert into A";

If you break out of the load illegally (ctrl-c), the tablespace is left load pending.

To correct:

Db2 "load form '/usr/seela/a.del' of del terminate into A";

This will return the table to it's original state and roll back the entries that you started loading.

If you try to reset the tablespace with quiesce, it will not work . It's an integrety issue

DB2BATCH- command

Reads SQL statements from either a flat file or standard input, dynamically prepares and describes the statements and returns an answer set: Authorization: sysadmin .and Required Connection -None..eg

db2batch -d databasename -f filename -a userid/passwd -r outfile

DB2expln - DB2 SQL Explain Tool

Describes the access plan selection for static SQL statements in packages that are stored in the DB2 common server systems catalog. Given the database name, package name ,package creator abd section

number the tool interprets and describes the information in these catalogs.


DB2exfmt - Explain Table Format Tool

DB2icrt - Create an instance

DB2idrop - Dropan instance

DB2ilist - List instances

DB2imigr - Migrate instances

DB2iupdt - Update instances

Db2licm - Installs licenses file for product ;

db2licm -a db2entr.lic

DB2look - DB2 Statistics Extraction Tool

Generates the updates statements required to make the catalog statistics of a test database match those of a production. It is advantageous to have a test system contain asubset of your production system's data.

This tool queries the system catalogs of a database and outputs a tablespace n table index, and column information about each table in that database Authorization: Select privelege on system catalogs Required

Connection - None. Syntax

db2look -d databasename -u creator -t Tname -s -g -a -p -o

Fname -e -m -c -r -h

where -s : generate a postscript file, -g a graph , -a for all users in the database, -t limits output to a particular tablename, -p plain text format , -m runs program in mimic mode, examples:

db2look -d db2res -o output will write stats for tables created in db

db2res in latex format

db2look -p -a -d db2res -o output - will write stats in plain text format

DB2 -list tablespaces show detail

displays the following information as an example:

Tablespaces for Current Database

Tablespace ID = 0

Name = SYSCATSPACE

Type = System managed space

Contents = Any data

State = 0x0000

Detailed explanation:

Normal

Total pages = 2925

Useable pages = 2925

Used pages = 2925

Free pages = Not applicable

High water mark (pages) = Not applicable

Page size (bytes) = 4096

Extent size (pages) = 32

Prefetch size (pages) = 32

Number of containers = 1


db2tbst - Get tablespace state.

Authorization - none , Required connection none, syntax db2tbst tabpespace-state:The state value is part of the output of list tablespaces example

db2tbst 0X0000 returns state normal

db2tbst 2 where 2 indicates tablespace id 2 will also work


DB2dbdft - environment variable

Defining this environment variable with the database you want to connect to automatically connects you to the database . example setenv db2dbdft sample will allow you to connect to sample by default.

CLP - Command Line Processor Invocation:

db2 starts the command line processor. The clp is used to execute database utilities, sql statements and online help. It offers a variety of command options and can be started in :

1. interactive mode : db2->

2. command mode where each command is prefixed by db2

3. batch mode which uses the -f file input option


Update the configuration in the database :

Db2 =>update db cfg for sample using maxappls 60

MAXFILOP = 64 2 - 9150

db2 => update db cfg for sample using maxappls 160

db2 => update db cfg for sample using AVG_APPLS 4

db2 =>update db cfg for sample using MAXFILOP 256

can see updated parameters from client

tcpip ..... not started up properly Check the DB2COMM variable if it it is set

db2set DB2COMM

How to terminate the database if processes are still attached:

db2 force applications all

db2stop

db2start

db2 connect to dbname (locally)

How to trace logs withing the db2diag.log file:

Connections to db fails:

Move the db2diag.log from the sqllib/db2dump directory to some other working directory ( mv db2diag.log

db2 update dbm cfg using diaglevel 4

db2stop

db2start

db2trc on -l 8000000 -e 10

db2 connect to dbname (locally)

db2trc dump 01876.trc

db2trc flw 01876.trc 01876.flw

db2trc fmt 01876.trc 01876.fmt

db2trc off

Import data from ascii file to database

db2 " import from inp.data of del insert into test"

db2 "load from '/cs/home/tech1/seela/inp.data' of del insert into seela.seela"

db2 <>

Revoke permissions from the database from public:

db2 => create database GO3421

DB20000I The CREATE DATABASE command completed successfully.

Now I want to revoke connect, createtab bindadd on database from public

On server: db2 => revoke connect , createtab, bindadd on database from public

Now on client, as techstu, I tried to connect to go3421

db2 => connect to go3421

SQL1060N User "TECHSTU " does not have the CONNECT privilege. SQLSTATE=08004

Now I have to grant connect privilege to group ugrad

On server:

db2 => grant connect, createtab on database to group ugrad

DB20000I The SQL command completed successfully.

Tested on client I can connect successfully.

Now on the client, I can connect as a student, list tables but not select. I

can still describe tables

To prevent this:

On server

revoke select on table syscat.columns from public

Now on client, I cannot describe but also on my tables.

db2 => revoke select on table syscat.columns from public

DB20000I The SQL command completed successfully.

db2 => grant select on table syscat.columns to group ugrad


On server:

db2 => revoke select on table syscat.indexes from public

DB20000I The SQL command completed successfully.

select * from syscat.dbauth will display all the privileges for

dbadm authority:

DBADMAUTH CREATETABAUTH BINDADDAUTH CONNECTAUTH

NOFENCEAUTH IMPLSCHEMAAUTH LOAD AUTH

select

TABNAME,DELETEAUTH,INSERTAUTH,SELECTAUTH from

syscat.tabauth

grant connect, createtab

grant connect, createtab on database to user techstu

to group ugrad


Instance Level Authority

db2 get dbm cfg

db2 get admin cfg

db2 get db cfg

CLP using filename on the command line

Db2 -f filename.clp

The -f option directs the clp to accept input from file.

Db2 +c -v +t infile .. The option can be prefixed by a + sign or turned on by a letter with a -sign

+c is turned off, -v turned on and -f turned on

c is for commit, v for verbose and f for filename

-t termination character is set to semicolon
How to count the number of tables in a schema ? 
1. db2 SELECT COUNT(*) FROM syscat.tables WHERE tabschema = 'CDSSCHEMA' AND type = 'T'
2. db2 LIST TABLES FOR SCHEMA CDSSCHEMA
In both the  queries above don't forget to give the schema name a CAPS.
How to apply the license in DB2 ?  
db2inst1@nc184158:/opt/ibm/db2> ls
V9.5
db2inst1@nc184158:/opt/ibm/db2> /home/db2inst1/sqllib/adm/db2licm -a /opt/builds/WAS61DB295LX32bit/DB2/server/db2/license/db2ese_t.lic

LIC1402I  License added successfully.

LIC1426I  This product is now licensed for use as outlined in your License Agreement.  USE OF THE PRODUCT CONSTITUTES ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS OF THE IBM LICENSE AGREEMENT, LOCATED IN THE FOLLOWING DIRECTORY: "/opt/ibm/db2/V9.5/license/en_US.iso88591"
db2inst1@nc184158:/opt/ibm/db2>
How to know the port used by the current running instance of DB2 ? 
db2 get dbm cfg | grep SVCENAME | cut -d= -f2 | awk '{print $1}'
Now the ouput will be one port Ex : 50000
Now grep for 50000 on /etc/services

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Trip to Madurai - Rameswaram - Kanyakumari - 3

Trip (Sashay) To Madhurai - Rameswaram - Kanyakumari
Trip to Madhurai-Rameswaram-Kanyakumari - 1
Trip to Madurai - Rameswaram - Kanyakumari - 2

Third day - After a hectic journey we reached kanyakumari around at 6 AM , that was exactly sun rise time that day, we immediately kept luggage in one room and reached the sun rise spot. Though the sun rise reached almost end we njoyed the sunrise it is awesome, I cant express in my words, one should really feel that.Enjoying first cold breeze, first rain and its smell , first snow fall, are not expressible but one should not miss any of these. After that we get refreshed and started to Kanyakumari temple. Gents has to visit the temple with out wearing a shirt. The main entrance to the temple is through the northern gate though the deity is facing east. The eastern entrance is kept closed except on special occasions when the deity is taken out for ceremonial bath. Three corridors surround the sanctum. The outer corridor has no special shrines, but after a walk round it the devotees cross the 'Navarathiri mandapam' and a pathway leads to the second corridor encircling the shrine. There stands the flag mast or 'Kodisthambam'. From here you can have a clear view of the Goddess. A move further forward will take you in front of the sanctum. The Goddess stands with rosary in one hand as if in prayer. It is believed that Parasurama installed the Idol made of blue stone. After worshipping the Goddess, the devotees walk around the inner corridor where the shrines of Vinayagar and Thiagasundary can be seen. After this we moved to Triveni Sangamam. As Kanyakumari is the southernmost tip of India which unites the Bay of Bengal, the Indian Ocean & the Arabian Sea. The confluence of the seas is termed as "Triveni Sangamam".We can find different colors of sands in the beaches.we can see the difference of seas with the color of the sea water when mixed.When we see from the sky we can easily see difference between seas.Next we moved to Gandhi memorial.Gandhi Mandapam is near the Kumari Amman Temple where the ash of Mahatma Gandhi is preserved. The Mandapam is designed in such a manner that on every October 2nd, the rays of the sun fall on the spot where the ash is kept.Then we moved to Vivekanada rock.We have to go there by Lunch.They will charge 30 R/- per head.

This is just 400 metres away from the shores offerry serviceSwami Vivekananda mediated and this turned to be an important event in his life. Kanyakumari and we can reach this rock with the help of the available there. This is the place where One can have a wonderful experience here where the three seas mingle and the architecture of this memorial is appreciable. There is a Meditation Hall here. A Book Store containing the teachings & works of Swami Vivekananda is also available.

On the vivekanada rock I found this lotus.Though there are many flowers, lotus has always its special attraction.I really like this.

From this we can see tiruvalluru Statue.Which is very big.

Next we saw the remaining places church,light house and topview point we finished lunch and took rest in room for some time and at 3 :40 PM we started to Nagarcoil, from where I booked bus to bangalore.And exactly by 5 PM we reached Nagarcoil bustop.ABT travels bus is really good and i felt it almost like Kesineni's bus.

Thats how we finished our trip and reached bangalore at 8 AM.

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Trip to Madurai - Rameswaram - Kanyakumari - 2

Trip Plan
Trip to Madhurai-Rameswaram-Kanyakumari - 1
Trip to Madurai - Rameswaram - Kanyakumari - 3

Second Day - Rameswarm


Second day We get refreshed in Madurai itself and started to Mattittavani bustand from periyar bus-stand(as we are staying just beside periyar bus stop).Mattidavni is 7 KM from periyar.Immediately we got bus to rameswaram and we started around 8:15 AM.It took almost 4 Hrs to reach Rameswaram.The route is good.once we are reaching sea shore area we feel fishy smell all the way.The only wonderful thing on the way is the rail bridge(Pamban bridge) built in Bow shape.Which is designed in such a way that it splits into two pieces when ships crossing it.Just beside this a road bridge will be there on which we will travel by bus.

So we can see this bridge very closely.But if we see when it is opened it will be definitely good.i missed it.After crossing this we will reach rameswaram temple with in 20 mins.After reaching rameswaram bus stop we will get buses to go to temple which will charge just 2 R/- it is 10 mins journey.Immly once we reached the temple some people surrounded us to help us in taking holy bath in the 22 wells.They charged around 70 R/- per head to finish the bath in all the wells.(including ticket charges for temple).The specialty of the 22 wells is we will taste 22 different tastes though they are just beside each other.After taking bath we have to wear dry clothes and visit the rama lingam(siva lingam).It was really awesome.This temple is also big and we can see very very big Nandi in premises. And the temple corridor is very big and beautiful.After Darshan we had tamil style meals near temple itself and we started visiting village.Actually all the Auto people are maintaing same rate 100 R/- to see places in village and 250 R/- to see Danshkoti along with the places in village. We booked auto to see all places in village.Among all Rama Padam in sree chakram, Doordarshan TV Tower, Floating rocks in anjaneya temple,Seeta Rama Temple etc are worth watching.
After seeing all these places we spent all the time in beach which is just .5 KM from temple and then we waited for bus for which we made already reservation to go to kanyakumari and the bus was too bad
and seats were worst and even the route itself is worst.My suggestion for readers and visitors is to go back to madurai same day itself and then go to kanyakumari from madurai.At last with so many hurdles we reached Kanyakumari next day morning exactly to see sunrise.

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Latest Fire fox browser is now Firefox 3.0 hypnotizedand you can start downloading it from here
Download Firfox 3.0
So Hurry up.. hurry up!Start browsing using Firefox 3.0

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Trip to Madhurai-Rameswaram-Kanyakumari - 1

As planned Total TRIP went very well except one journey from Rameswaram to Kanyakumari.
Trip Plan
Trip to Madhurai-Rameswaram-Kanyakumari - 1
Trip to Madurai - Rameswaram - Kanyakumari - 2
Trip to Madurai - Rameswaram - Kanyakumari - 3

I am sure this trip will be one of the most memorable trips in my life.
We reached Madhurai(Temple city) around 7:45 AM. Railway station is very near to Meenakshi amman temple and Periyar Bus stand. So we decided to take lodge near to temple.
After getting refreshed in room we immediately started moving to temple.One the way we finished breakfast and reached the Temple which is 5 minutes walk from Periyar bus stop.Temple so big so it took around 4 Hrs(9 AM to 12 :30 Pm) for us to see all the temple. I paid 50 R/- to use the camera in temple premises. But we should not take the photos in any of the main temples.
There are 12 massive gopurams in the temple, the four tallest gopurams at the outer walls (The tallest is the southern gopuram, measuring 49 metres). There are four entrances. We should enter from east gopuram .One should see the meenakshi amman first and then we have to see the sundareeswar temple.All the gopurams are covered as there is some painting work is going on.
The main entrance is to the Meenakshi Amman shrine. There are two main temples in the entire meenakshi temple one is Meenakshi amman kovil and another is Sundareeswara temple.We took special darshan tickets,and entered in to temple.The good thing I observed in all the temples is, if we took the special darshan ticket we can see the god from very close.(In other places special darshan is totally intend to cross big lines easily).No doubt one who will see the Meenakshi temple closely and deeply will get rid of their sins.Meenakshi amma looks so beautiful in the oil deepas(I didn't see any electrical lights in any of the temples in this whole trip.Meenakshi amma holding a parrot and flowers in her hand looks amazing.Mukkera on her nose shines even in the dark oil lamps lighting also.
Next prceeded to sundareeswar temple we are really lucky enough to see the special Rudraabhishekam performed that time for more than one hour.There are different sculptures of almost all the Hindu gods on the walls of the temple.And it is almost like a temple mall where we will find almost all the gods.Ganesha, shanmuga, sarswathi, durga, dakshina murthy, anjaneya etc.
The temple plan looks like the below A lotus shaped city is said to have been built by the Pandyan king Kulasekhara around the siva linga worshipped by Indra in the forest of Kadamba trees. When Lord Siva came to bless them, nectar dripped from his matted locks & hence the city was named Madhurapuri (madhu - honey), & is now known as Madurai.The Kampathadi Mandapam and Velli Ambalam are situated in the outer corridor. The scenes from the wedding cermeony of Sundareswarar & Meenakshi are depicted in the pillars of this hall. This place is one of the 5 (Pancha Sabhais) sabhas of Nataraja where Siva dances. (The other dance halls are Chidambaram, Tiruvaalankadu, Tirunelveli and Kutralam). There is a unique idol of Nataraja dancing with his right leg raised to the shoulder instead of the left. The Lord is considered to have danced thus, at the request of King Rajasekara Pandyan. Since the idol of Nataraja is covered with silver leaves, it is called Velli (silver) Ambalam.

Golden Lotus Tank
Potramarai Kulam, the sacred pond measuring 165 ft by 120 ft inside the temple is a very holy site for the devotees and people go around the lake before entering the main shrine. The etymology for the word means, the Pond with the Golden Lily and as the Lily that grows in it has a golden color. According to the legend, Lord Shiva promised to a stork that no fish or other marine life would grow here and thus no marine animals are found in the lake.In the Tamil legends, the lake is supposed to be a judge for judging a worth of a new literature. Thus, authors place their works here and the poorly written works are supposed to sink and the scholastic ones are supposed to float.
Next wonderful thing in the temple is 1000 pillars Hall, which they are using it as art museum.it is also really worth seeing as they kept the all history and photographs of the temple along with the ancient sculptures and coins etc.
After darshan and dinner we took 1 hr rest in room and immly at 3 PM started to Algar koil and Thripura kundam.We booked a cab for up and down journey to cover both of these places.Algar koil is 20 KM from periyar bus stop in south side where as thripura kundam is 10 km to periyar bus stop to north.so first we visited the algarkoil and then went to thripurakundam via perioyar bus stand itself.
Azhagar Kovil
Located 21 kms northwest of Madurai is a Vishnu Temple on a picturesque wooded hill.
Here 'Vishnu' presides as Meenakshi's brother 'Azhgar'. During the Chitrai festival in April/May, when the celestial marriage of Meenakshi to Sundareswarar is celebrated, Azhagar travels to Madurai. A gold processional icon called the Sundararajar is carried by devotees in procession from Azhagar Kovil to Madurai for wedding ritual.Azhagar Kovil is very old temple with long black rock statues of balaji,sridevi and budevi can be seen.
Palamudhirsolai, one of the six abodes of Lord Subramanya is on the same hill, about 4 kms. above. A natural spring called Nuburagangai where pilgrims bath, is located here.to go to Palamudhirsolai we will be getting buses which will charge 10R/-.On the hill we can see subramnya swamy and mahalkshmi ammavaru as well as waterfalls.
In azhagar koil we can see wondeful sculptures in different dance poses as well as narasimha swamys rare action poses.
Next we visited subramnaya temple in a cave called thripura kundam.There we can see virabdra temple in the left of entrance.
Then after dinner we took rest.started journey to Rameswaram next day morning.

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How to transfer files between 2 windows machines ?

The basic thing to start with is we need to have at least one machine enabled with FTP.
So lets assume none of the machines are having FTP enabled.
So to enable FTP on windows follow the following steps in the url.
How to enable FTP [Best with screens][1][2][3][4]


Once u enabled the FTP on any of the servers it is well known to us to transfer files using FTP from one to other either using internet explorer or using command prompt.
How to FTP

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Network Calculators - Subnet Mask Calculator

Subnetting concepts are always tricky to me ...when I go through I understand very clearly but when comes to practice I confused many times ...hence I generally refer ones the following link always before giving subnet ranges ...
Why subnetting ?
Subnetting
More abt subnetting
Basics and depth abt subnetting - Detailed explanation
Subnetting Tutor by CISCO
Many people who works in telecoms domain will face a situation to know the Possible IP ranges for a given subent.
So The following link surely helps people in calculating the
Subnet Mask,IP range etc.
N/W Calculator
IP Calculator

My Subnetting Example :

Problem :
We have been allocated a 130.16.0.0 IP address for our network. We wish to subnet this into 13 subnets and allow for the expansion in the near future. ?
Devise an IP subnet plan, giving the network, first host, last host and broadcast IP addresses for each subnet. Also specify the subnet mask you would use.


1. Calculate required number of bits to borrow for subnetting.
130 is a class B address so we can borrow from 2 to 14 bits
4 bits borrowed give us (24-2 ) = 14 subnets (not much room for expansion)
5 bits borrowed give us (25-2 ) = 30 subnets (plenty room for expansion)
So we choose to borrow 5 bits for the host part of the class B address.
This leaves 11 bits for hosts = 211-2 hosts = 2046 hosts per subnet (all 0’s and all 1’s cannot be used)
(In this question, the number of host required per subnet have not been specified (but they may be)!


2. Calculate the subnet mask

Subnet mask has all 1’s in the network+subnet part of the address.

Hence 11111111 11111111 11111000 00000000
= 255.255.248.0

3. Calculate all subnet network addresses

(in the 5 bits we have borrowed we count up sequentially from 00001 to 11110 (all 0’s and all 1’s cannot be used)
NB All 0’s in the host part refer to the subnet itself.

1st subnet = 130.16.00001 000.00000000 = 130.16.8.0
2nd subnet = 130.16.00010 000.00000000 = 130.16.16.0
3rd subnet = 130.16.00011 000.00000000 = 130.16.24.0
4th subnet = 130.16.00100 000.00000000 = 130.16.32.0
5th subnet = 130.16.00101 000.00000000 = 130.16.40.0
6th subnet = 130.16.00110 000.00000000 = 130.16.48.0
7th subnet = 130.16.00111 000.00000000 = 130.16.56.0
8th subnet = 130.16.01000 000.00000000 = 130.16.64.0
9th subnet = 130.16.01001 000.00000000 = 130.16.72.0
10th subnet = 130.16.01010 000.00000000 = 130.16.80.0
11th subnet = 130.16.01011 000.00000000 = 130.16.88.0
12th subnet = 130.16.01100 000.00000000 = 130.16.96.0
13th subnet = 130.16.01101 000.00000000 = 130.16.104.0
14th subnet = 130.16.01110 000.00000000 = 130.16.112.0
15th subnet = 130.16.01111 000.00000000 = 130.16.120.0
16th subnet = 130.16.10000 000.00000000 = 130.16.128.0
17th subnet = 130.16.10001 000.00000000 = 130.16.136.0
18th subnet = 130.16.10010 000.00000000 = 130.16.144.0
19th subnet = 130.16.10011 000.00000000 = 130.16.152.0
20th subnet = 130.16.10100 000.00000000 = 130.16.160.0
21th subnet = 130.16.10101 000.00000000 = 130.16.168.0
22th subnet = 130.16.10110 000.00000000 = 130.16.176.0
23th subnet = 130.16.10111 000.00000000 = 130.16.184.0
24th subnet = 130.16.11000 000.00000000 = 130.16.192.0
25th subnet = 130.16.11001 000.00000000 = 130.16.200.0
26th subnet = 130.16.11010 000.00000000 = 130.16.208.0
27th subnet = 130.16.11011 000.00000000 = 130.16.216.0
28th subnet = 130.16.11100 000.00000000 = 130.16.224.0
29th subnet = 130.16.11101 000.00000000 = 130.16.232.0
30th subnet = 130.16.11110 000.00000000 = 130.16.240.0

4 Calculate all address of the first host, last host and broadcast on each subnet.

First host is 1 in the host ID field (11 bits) = 000 00000001
Last host is 1 less than all 1’s in the host ID field (11 bits) = 111 11111110
Broadcast is all 1’s in the host ID field (11 bits) = 111 11111111

1st subnet =130.16.00001 000.00000000 = 130.16.8.0
First Host =130.16.00001 000.00000001 = 130.16.8.1
Last Host =130.16.00001 111.11111110 = 130.16.15.254
Broadcast =130.16.00001 111.11111111 = 130.16.15.255

2nd subnet =130.16.00010 000.00000000 = 130.16.16.0
First Host =130.16.00010 000.00000001 = 130.16.16.1
Last Host =130.16.00010 111.11111110 = 130.16.23.254
Broadcast =130.16.00010 111.11111111 = 130.16.23.255

3rd subnet =130.16.00011 000.00000000 = 130.16.24.0
First Host =130.16.00011 000.00000001 = 130.16.24.1
Last Host =130.16.00011 111.11111110 = 130.16.31.254
Broadcast =130.16.00011 111.11111111 = 130.16.31.255

4th subnet =130.16.00100 000.00000000 = 130.16.32.0
First Host =130.16.00100 000.00000001 = 130.16.32.1
Last Host =130.16.00100 111.11111110 = 130.16.39.254
Broadcast =130.16.00100 111.11111111 = 130.16.39.255

5th subnet =130.16.00101 000.00000000 = 130.16.40.0
First Host =130.16.00101 000.00000001 = 130.16.40.1
Last Host =130.16.00101 111.11111110 = 130.16.47.254
Broadcast =130.16.00101 111.11111111 = 130.16.47.255

6th subnet =130.16.00110 000.00000000 = 130.16.48.0
First Host =130.16.00110 000.00000001 = 130.16.48.1
Last Host =130.16.00110 111.11111110 = 130.16.55.254
Broadcast =130.16.00110 111.11111111 = 130.16.55.255

7th subnet =130.16.00111 000.00000000 = 130.16.56.0
First Host =130.16.00111 000.00000001 = 130.16.56.1
Last Host =130.16.00111 111.11111110 = 130.16.63.254
Broadcast =130.16.00111 111.11111111 = 130.16.63.255

8th subnet =130.16.01000 000.00000000 = 130.16.64.0
First Host =130.16.01000 000.00000001 = 130.16.64.1
Last Host =130.16.01000 111.11111110 = 130.16.71254
Broadcast =130.16.01000 111.11111111 = 130.16.71.255

9th subnet =130.16.01001 000.00000000 = 130.16.72.0
First Host =130.16.01001 000.00000001 = 130.16.72.1
Last Host =130.16.01001 111.11111110 = 130.16.79.254
Broadcast =130.16.01001 111.11111111 = 130.16.79.255

10th subnet =130.16.01010 000.00000000 = 130.16.80.0
First Host =130.16.01010 000.00000001 = 130.16.80.1
Last Host =130.16.01010 111.11111110 = 130.16.87.254
Broadcast =130.16.01010 111.11111111 = 130.16.87.255

11th subnet =130.16.01011 000.00000000 = 130.16.88.0
First Host =130.16.01011 000.00000001 = 130.16.88.1
Last Host =130.16.01011 111.11111110 = 130.16.95.254
Broadcast =130.16.01011 111.11111111 = 130.16.95.255

12th subnet =130.16.01100 000.00000000 = 130.16.96.0
First Host =130.16.01100 000.00000001 = 130.16.96.1
Last Host =130.16.01100 111.11111110 = 130.16.103.254
Broadcast =130.16.01100 111.11111111 = 130.16.103.255

13th subnet =130.16.01101 000.00000000 = 130.16.104.0
First Host =130.16.01101 000.00000001 = 130.16.104.1
Last Host =130.16.01101 111.11111110 = 130.16.111.254
Broadcast =130.16.01101 111.11111111 = 130.16.111.255

14th subnet =130.16.01110 000.00000000 = 130.16.112.0
First Host =130.16.01110 000.00000001 = 130.16.112.1
Last Host =130.16.01110 111.11111110 = 130.16.119.254
Broadcast =130.16.01110 111.11111111 = 130.16.119.255

15th subnet =130.16.01111 000.00000000 = 130.16.120.0
First Host =130.16.01111 000.00000001 = 130.16.120.1
Last Host =130.16.01111 111.11111110 = 130.16.127.254
Broadcast =130.16.01111 111.11111111 = 130.16.127.255

16th subnet =130.16.10000 000.00000000 = 130.16.128.0
First Host =130.16.10000 000.00000001 = 130.16.128.1
Last Host =130.16.10000 111.11111110 = 130.16.135.254
Broadcast =130.16.10000 111.11111111 = 130.16.135.255

17th subnet =130.16.10001 000.00000000 = 130.16.136.0
First Host =130.16.10001 000.00000001 = 130.16.136.1
Last Host =130.16.10001 111.11111110 = 130.16.143.254
Broadcast =130.16.10001 111.11111111 = 130.16.143.255

18th subnet =130.16.10010 000.00000000 = 130.16.144.0
First Host =130.16.10010 000.00000001 = 130.16.144.1
Last Host =130.16.10010 111.11111110 = 130.16.151.254
Broadcast =130.16.10010 111.11111111 = 130.16.151.255

19th subnet =130.16.10011 000.00000000 = 130.16.152.0
First Host =130.16.10011 000.00000001 = 130.16.152.1
Last Host =130.16.10011 111.11111110 = 130.16.159.254
Broadcast =130.16.10011 111.11111111 = 130.16.159.255

20th subnet =130.16.10100 000.00000000 = 130.16.160.0
First Host =130.16.10100 000.00000001 = 130.16.160.1
Last Host =130.16.10100 111.11111110 = 130.16.167.254
Broadcast =130.16.10100 111.11111111 = 130.16.167.255

21th subnet =130.16.10101 000.00000000 = 130.16.168.0
First Host =130.16.10101 000.00000001 = 130.16.168.1
Last Host =130.16.10101 111.11111110 = 130.16.175.254
Broadcast =130.16.10101 111.11111111 = 130.16.175.255

22th subnet =130.16.10110 000.00000000 = 130.16.176.0
First Host =130.16.10110 000.00000001 = 130.16.176.1
Last Host =130.16.10110 111.11111110 = 130.16.183.254
Broadcast =130.16.10110 111.11111111 = 130.16.183.255

23th subnet =130.16.10111 000.00000000 = 130.16.184.0
First Host =130.16.10111 000.00000001 = 130.16.184.1
Last Host =130.16.10111 111.11111110 = 130.16.191.254
Broadcast =130.16.10111 111.11111111 = 130.16.191.255

24th subnet =130.16.11000 000.00000000 = 130.16.192.0
First Host =130.16.11000 000.00000001 = 130.16.192.1
Last Host =130.16.11000 111.11111110 = 130.16.199.254
Broadcast =130.16.11000 111.11111111 = 130.16.199.255

25th subnet =130.16.11001 000.00000000 = 130.16.200.0
First Host =130.16.11001 000.00000001 = 130.16.200.1
Last Host =130.16.11001 111.11111110 = 130.16.207.254
Broadcast =130.16.11001 111.11111111 = 130.16.207.255

26th subnet =130.16.11010 000.00000000 = 130.16.208.0
First Host =130.16.11010 000.00000001 = 130.16.208.1
Last Host =130.16.11010 111.11111110 = 130.16.215.254
Broadcast =130.16.11010 111.11111111 = 130.16.215.255

27th subnet =130.16.11011 000.00000000 = 130.16.216.0
First Host =130.16.11011 000.00000001 = 130.16.216.1
Last Host =130.16.11011 111.11111110 = 130.16.223.254
Broadcast =130.16.11011 111.11111111 = 130.16.223.255

28th subnet =130.16.11100 000.00000000 = 130.16.224.0
First Host =130.16.11100 000.00000001 = 130.16.224.1
Last Host =130.16.11100 111.11111110 = 130.16.231.254
Broadcast =130.16.11100 111.11111111 = 130.16.231.255

29th subnet =130.16.11101 000.00000000 = 130.16.232.0
First Host =130.16.11101 000.00000001 = 130.16.232.1
Last Host =130.16.11101 111.11111110 = 130.16.239.254
Broadcast =130.16.11101 111.11111111 = 130.16.239.255

30th subnet =130.16.11110 000.00000000 = 130.16.240.0
First Host =130.16.11110 000.00000001 = 130.16.240.1
Last Host =130.16.11110 111.11111110 = 130.16.247.254
Broadcast =130.16.11110 111.11111111 = 130.16.247.255

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WWW - W3 Schools

I love things learning on my own, I love to do some creative and smart things on web, It is really fun doing always for me,Playing with images , making more stylish pages visiting all possible Google links, this is how i usually pass my time in front of my lappy.When I started learning about web pages building and its development techniques and tips most of the time very basic level introductions and explanations about use of tags or etc were given extraordinarily in w3schools site.
So I love to use this for most of my doubts.
I am sure one who is beginner will love to njoy this ...
So have a look at my favorite Web building Tips in CSS and other in the following links.
1.w3schools
2.CSS Introductions
3.CSS More
4.CSS Guide
5.CSS Tutorials
6.CSS Tutor

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Web Pages - HTML Colors

When ever i need to work with different color combinations while working with HTML design of the pages i usually follow the following rules and links.
Find Color of the Hexadecimal number
Find ur Fav color
Color Values
Colors are defined using a hexadecimal notation for the combination of Red, Green, and Blue color values (RGB). The lowest value that can be given to one light source is 0 (hex #00). The highest value is 255 (hex #FF).

Color Values
HTML colors are defined using a hexadecimal notation for the combination of Red, Green, and Blue color values (RGB). The lowest value that can be given to one of the light sources is 0 (hex #00). The highest value is 255 (hex #FF).

HTML Color Names
The table below provides a list of color names.

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HTML Validation and Optimization

These days I am working on HTML files and developing websites ...so many times I got a situation to optimize the existing HTML code or to Validate an existing one.Generally I used to check the code using Dream weaver software to find whether W3C standards are fulfilled or not.
And i got one light weight GUI tool to do the same so those who are looking for small project validations can use this tool.
Its name is Tidy.HTML Validator
Tidy can be embedded as extra plug in in Firefox and you can just view the source to get the validation done immediately and quickly.
Fire fox plugin for tidy
Of course one can do online validation for a particular live site giving the url in some of the sites like below.
Give ur web site URL here to get it validated

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LalithaSahasraNamam

This is the finest way of chanting and admiring God ...no Doubt it shows results to any body for any cause...Download from teh following link and chant.
Lalitha Sahasranamam in Telugu

[1] [2] [3] [4] 
You can save the above in PDF format too.

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Games !!!!!

Games !!! who will say no to it ...of course I too like it ...but these days it became very rare in my case and that too i felt like my interests about games has been changed a lot .I used play action games when i was in my graduation.But these days my interest totally changed towards funny games , cartoon games and at max a Race game thats it....
So i will keep on posting some small light weight and funny games here in this post from this time onwards which ever i fell like good ...So keep playing ..keep watching this post for ur fun time ...

"Apple Shooter"
Just you have to shoot arrow to hit apple on ur enemy's head(manager/TL/etc :-))
It is always fun playing ...
Open with Microsoft's Excel.
Apple Shooter.xls-Download
or Apple shooter.xls
"Check ur Concentration"
You have to always identify the pointed cube. Once u hit the start the cubes start rotating.
Open with Microsoft's Excel.
Checkurconcentration.xls

"Test ur Patience"
Instructions will be there in the game itself..open it in InternetExplorer or any browsers.
aguanta.htm

"Gold Miner"
Some what intresting but a funny game again
Download

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Distance between main cities

Many times i felt difficulty in finding distance between different cities, especially while planing a trip
Distance caliculator in india

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How to see full command with PID

Many times one may wants to see the total path and command which is running a particular process with PID.
then this is the command ..
just give the PID which gives the entire command used by user to run that will be given
/usr/ucb/ps -ww pid

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ls and grep in windows

It was really useful when some body are working with many files in Windows and searching for a common word in all files.This was given by my friend but sure many of us will need this job some time ...
so the command in windows to find a particular word in all files of current directory is as follows.
find /N /I "keywords" *.html

Above commad will search for the word "keywords" (both cases) in all the html files.
/N is for line number and /I is to ignore case.
sample output :

---------- SIGNUP2.HTML

---------- SUBCATEGORY.HTML

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Bash for HP

Many Unix(HP) users might faced trouble who are habituated to Bash shell in other Unix flavors.
Ofcourse me too..So Finally the best solution i got from some of my colleagues is to run the following attached binary once in ur HP-UX shell.
it is very light binary.just run it and u r all set to go to run commands as like in other Unix flavors.
bash_hp Download
Hope it helps...

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Trip (Sashay) To Madhurai - Rameswaram - Kanyakumari

It is purely for my parent’s sake I planned this sashay, as this is the first time they are staying with me in Bangalore for some time with out any other intention like attending some function in other relative’s home or any. So I want their stay here a memorable one hence I planned a pure devotional place to cover with them which we haven’t seen yet. Before planning this when I asked my colegues and friends every body suggested Mysore and other near by places. But all of a sudden “Madhurai” is the one flashed in my mind.
I felt like instant ideas are best in many things and I finalized the place and started booking train tickets to Madhurai. When I started booking tickets for 13th June, no tickets were available. I got tickets only for 18th June night train from Bangalore to MDU(Madurai Junction).I immediately booked the tickets for my father and mother and me. It was really a magic and game of god – Actually I have my project deadline till june 20th 2008.But it wont take that much time, that’s the reason I think god gave me available tickets on 18th which means that I can finish my project by 18th and can take some breath getting out of the office for some time with parents.Once I booked the tickets to “Madhurai” I started enquiring more about the other places near this.So Rameshwaram and Kanyakumari were added to my sashay. So total trip is planned like this 18th(wed) night
Day 1 : start to Madhurai from Banaglore majestic station at 9:00 PM by train No (6732) TUTICORIN EXP and reaching Madhurai at mornig 8 AM.After visiting places there that eeving travel to Rameshwaram .
Day 2 : Madhurai to Ramshwaram by bus.In the morning.
Day 3 :Reaching Kanyakumari from Madhurai by bus.(Advance bus booking can be done in bangalore itself in majestic SETC counter).I booked my bus at 7:30 PM.which will be 8 to 9 hours bus journey.May be i will be reaching there around early hours 3 AM.So We can njoy the Sun rise.
Tamilnadu busr reservation details
The same day it self travelling from kanyakumari around at 3 PM to nagarcoil by road to catch my bus to Bangalore at 5 PM in Nagarcoil.(I booked the return ticket from Nagarcoil to Bangalore from ABT Travels(Madiwala office - bangalore).Compared to KPN travels ABT services are better i heard.And i felt it is economical too.I enquired price in both travels.
This is what I planned, Hope every thing goes fine…I will update the same post with more details once I am back from trip.
Trip to Madhurai-Rameswaram-Kanyakumari - 1
Trip to Madurai - Rameswaram - Kanyakumari - 2
Trip to Madurai - Rameswaram - Kanyakumari - 3

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Why to Chant Vishnu Sahsranamam ?

[1] [2] [3]
vishnu sahasranamam in telugu
The following is a wonderful website for Telugu people to know more about the devotional things.
Telugu Bakti

On avoiding evil, succeeding in battle, and gaining affluence, pleasure, happiness, and offspring:
Bhisma said, "Even thus have I recited to thee, without any exception, the thousand excellent names of the high-souled Kesava whose glory should always be sung. That man who hears the names every day or who recites them every day, never meets with any evil either here or hereafter. If a Brahmana does this he succeeds in mastering the Vedanta; if a Kshatriya does it, he becomes always successful in battle. A Vaisya, by doing it, becomes possessed of affluence, while a Sudra earns great happiness."If one becomes desirous of earning the merit of righteousness, one succeeds in earning it (by hearing or reciting these names). If it is wealth that one desires, one succeeds in earning wealth (by acting in this way). So also the man who wishes for enjoyments of the senses succeeds in enjoying all kinds of pleasures, and the man desirous of offspring acquires offspring (by pursuing this course of conduct)."

On acquiring fame, prosperity, prowess, energy, strength, beauty, removing fear, avoiding calamity, and being cured of disease:
"That man who with devotion and perseverance and heart wholly turned towards him, recites these thousand names of Vasudeva every day, after having purified himself, succeeds in acquiring great fame, a position of eminence among his kinsmen, enduring prosperity, and lastly, that which is of the highest benefit to him (viz., emancipation Moksha itself). Such a man never meets with fear at any time, and acquires great prowess and energy. Disease never afflicts him; splendour of complexion, strength, beauty, and accomplishments become his. The sick become hale, the afflicted become freed from their afflictions; the frightened become freed from fear, and he that is plunged in calamity becomes freed from calamity."

The man who hymns the praises of that foremost of Beings by reciting His thousand names with devotion succeeds in quickly crossing all difficulties. That mortal who takes refuge in Vasudeva and who becomes devoted to Him, becomes freed of all sins and attains to eternal Brahman. They who are devoted to Vasudeva have never to encounter any evil. They become freed from the fear of birth, death, decrepitude, and disease."
On acquiring righteousness and intelligence, and avoiding the sins of evil:
"That man who with devotion and faith recites this hymn (consisting of the thousand names of Vasudeva) succeeds in acquiring felicity of soul, forgiveness of disposition, Prosperity, intelligence, memory, and fame. Neither wrath, nor jealousy, nor cupidity, nor evil understanding ever appears in those men of righteousness who are devoted to that foremost of beings. The firmament with the sun, moon and stars, the welkin, the points of the compass, the earth and the ocean, are all held and supported by the prowess of the high-souled Vasudeva. The whole mobile and immobile universe with the deities, Asuras, and Gandharvas, Yakshas, Uragas and Rakshasas, is under the sway of Krishna."
On the origins of the soul, the source of righteous behavior, and the basis of all knowledge and existence:
"The senses, mind, understanding, life, energy, strength and memory, it has been said, have Vasudeva for their soul. Indeed, this body that is called Kshetra, and the intelligent soul within, that is called the knower of Kshetra, also have Vasudeva for their soul. Conduct (consisting of practices) is said to be the foremost of all topics treated of in the scriptures. Righteousness has conduct for its basis. The unfading Vasudeva is said to be the Lord of righteousness. The Rishis, the Pitris, the deities, the great (primal) elements, the metals, indeed, the entire mobile and immobile universe, has sprung from Narayana. Yoga, the Sankhya Philosophy, knowledge, all mechanical arts, the Vedas, the diverse scriptures, and all learning, have sprung from Janardana. Vishnu is the one great element or substance which has spread itself out into multifarious forms. Covering the three worlds, He the soul of all things, enjoys them all."
His glory knows no diminution, and He it is that is the Enjoyer of the universe (as its Supreme Lord). This hymn in praise of the illustrious Vishnu composed by Vyasa, should be recited by that person who wishes to acquire happiness and that which is the highest benefit (viz., emancipation). Those persons that worship and adore the Lord of the universe, that deity who is inborn and possessed of blazing effulgence, who is the origin or cause of the universe, who knows no deterioration, and who is endued with eyes that are as large and beautiful as the petals of the lotus, have never to meet with any discomfiture."

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What is a zombie process?

Zombie process is an inactive computer process.
A zombie process or defunct process is a process that has completed execution but still has an entry in the process table, allowing the process that started it to read its exit status.
* A process can be sleeping in kernel code. Usually that's because of faulty hardware or a badly written driver- or maybe a little of both. A device that isn't set to the interrupt the driver thinks it is can cause this, for example- the driver is waiting for something its never going to get. The process doesn't ignore your signal- it just never gets it.
A zombie process doesn't react to signals because it's not really a process at all- it's just what's left over after it died. What's supposed to happen is that its parent process was to issue a "wait()" to collect the information about its exit. If the parent doesn't (programming error or just bad programming), you get a zombie. The zombie will go away if its parent dies- it will be "adopted" by init which will do the wait()- so if you see one hanging about, check its parent; if it is init, it will be gone soon, if not the only recourse is to kill the parent..which you may or may not want to do.
Finally, a process that is being traced (by a debugger, for example) won't react to the KILL either.

So how do I find out zombie process?
# top
or
# ps aux | awk '{ print $8 " " $2 }' | grep -w Z
How do I kill zombie process?

You cannot kill zombies, as they are already dead. But if you have too many zombies then kill parent process or restart service.

You can kill zombie process using PID obtained from any one of the above command. For example kill zombie proces having PID 4104:
# kill -9 4104

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What is init.d ?

The /etc/init.d directory contains the scripts executed by init at boot time and when the init state (or "runlevel") is changed.
These scripts are referenced by symbolic links in the /etc/rcn.d directories. When changing runlevels, init looks in the directory /etc/rcn.d for the scripts it should execute, where n is the runlevel that is being changed to, or S for the boot-up scripts.

The names of the links all have the form Smmscript or Kmmscript where mm is a two-digit number and script is the name of the script (this should be the same as the name of the actual script in /etc/init.d).
When init changes runlevel first the targets of the links whose names start with a K are executed, each with the single argument stop, followed by the scripts prefixed with an S, each with the single argument start. (The links are those in the /etc/rcn.d directory corresponding to the new runlevel.) The K links are responsible for killing services and the S link for starting services upon entering the runlevel.

For example, if we are changing from runlevel 2 to runlevel 3, init will first execute all of the K prefixed scripts it finds in /etc/rc3.d, and then all of the S prefixed scripts in that directory. The links starting with K will cause the referred-to file to be executed with an argument of stop, and the S links with an argument of start.

The two-digit number mm is used to determine the order in which to run the scripts: low-numbered links have their scripts run first. For example, the K20 scripts will be executed before the K30 scripts. This is used when a certain service must be started before another. For example, the name server bind might need to be started before the news server inn so that inn can set up its access lists. In this case, the script that starts bind would have a lower number than the script that starts inn so that it runs first:

/etc/rc2.d/S17bind
/etc/rc2.d/S70inn

The two runlevels 0 (halt) and 6 (reboot) are slightly different. In these runlevels, the links with an S prefix are still called after those with a K prefix, but they too are called with the single argument stop.

Also, if the script name ends in .sh, the script will be sourced in runlevel S rather than being run in a forked subprocess, but will be explicitly run by sh in all other runlevels.

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How to use Arrays in writing shell scripts

Basics
Note :
Arrays initialization described below will works only in bash shell.
sh will gives error as it can't interprit the arrays
use execute command as
bash

In Shell Scripting arrays are relatively easy to construct.
Example:
-----------------------------------------
#!/bin/bash
array=(red green blue yellow magenta)
len=${#array[*]}
echo "The array has $len members. They are:"
i=0
while [ $i -lt $len ]; do
echo "$i: ${array[$i]}"
let i++
done
------------------------------------------
Run this example:
$ ./myscript.sh
The array has 5 members. They are:
0: red
1: green
2: blue
3: yellow
4: magenta
Now, before you decide this is a silly, rather useless example, replace one line of the script and run it again:
array=(`ls`)
See what difference this makes (and think of all the kinds of lists you might create for this line).

Another example
------------------
#!/bin/bash
names=( Jaggu Teena Amma Sai )
for name in ${names[@]}
do
echo $name
# other stuff on $name
done
------------------
How to put a shell script in crontab to execute for every 5 minitues
0,5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40,45,50,55 * * * * bash /opt/kbabu/checklogs.sh > /opt/kbabu/errors_cron.log

Example to check logs using arrays
--------------------
#!/bin/bash
file=( "/opt/kbabu/log" "/opt/kbabu/log2" )
len=${#file[*]}
i=0;
while [ $i -lt $len ]
do
echo "file name : ${file[$i]}"
echo "checking log at time : `date`"
echo "`cat ${file[$i]} | grep Error`"
echo "`cat ${file[$i]} | grep ERROR`"
echo "`cat ${file[$i]} | grep Warning`"
echo "`cat ${file[$i]} | grep WARNING`"
i=`expr $i + 1`
done
--------------------

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My SQL Basic FAQ's

How to start mysql in windows ?
C:\mysql-5.0.16-win32\bin\mysqld.exe
C:\mysql-5.0.16-win32\bin\mysql -u root
How to log in to mysql ?
mysql -u root mysql

Then set a password (changing "NewPw", of course):
update user set Password=password('NewPw') where User='root';
flush privileges;

Creating a Database ?
create database database01;
All that really does is create a new subdirectory in your MYSQLHOME\data directory.

How to connect to DB?
use database01

How to create a new Table ?
create table table01 (field01 integer, field02 char(10));

How to see the existing tables ?
show tables;

How to see the table structure like desc in Oracle ?
show columns from table01;

How to insert data into a table ?
1)insert into table01 (field01, field02) values (1, 'first');
2)insert into table01 (field01,field02,field03,field04,field05) values
-> (2, 'second', 'another', '1999-10-23', '10:30:00');

Select commands in mysql ?
1) select * from table01;

Altering a table ?
1)alter table table01 add column field03 char(20);
2)alter table table01 add column field04 date, add column field05 time;

How to eneter a sql statement in multiple lines ?
create table table33
-> (field01
-> integer,
-> field02
-> char(30));

Updating a table data ?
update table01 set field04=19991022, field05=062218 where field01=1;

Deleting a record ?
delete from table01 where field01=3;

To come out of mysql prompt ?
quit

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NMS & EMS


If below links are not working to download the files ..please drop me a mail so that I can send those docs through mail.
see my mail id the contact page

Networking Essentials
NMS EMS basics
EMS.pdf
snmp.pdf
snmp_overview.pdf

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Curriculum Search

The CS Curriculum Search will help you find teaching materials that have been published to the web by faculty from CS departments around the world. You can refine your search to display just lectures, assignments or reference materials for a set of courses.

Searching for only courses that have been published to the web from the Google home page is not easy. Google recently launched a CS Curriculum Search to fix this and it can be found

http://code.google.com/edu/curriculumsearch/

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