How to make Credit Card Payment using cheq(what to write ?)

SBI
SBI CARD NO. XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX
HDFC
HDFC BANK CARD NO.XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX
HSBC
HSBC A/C XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX
CITI BANK
CITIBANK CARD NO.XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX
ICICI
ICICI BANK CARD NO. XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX

ABN AMRO BANK
AAB Card No. XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX

Skypak provides cheq collection for various banks except HDFC and some other.
Skypak - Bangalore 
Phone : 080-41155090
              080-41161395
Address : 
No:38,Panna Sadan(house name)
Pallani Madhurai Street
Hallasoor
Above co-operative bank
Bangalore

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How to determine whether your computer is running a 32-bit version or a 64-bit version of the Windows operating system?

Note :
Intel Itanium-based computers can only run 64-bit versions of Windows. Intel Itanium-based computers cannot run a 32-bit Windows operating system. Currently, 64-bit versions of Windows only run on Itanium-based computers and AMD64-based computers.
Note 2 :
Click on Start > Run. Type 'winmsd' to display the 'System Information' window.
Look at the 'Item' column for the following entries:
OS Name - If the OS is a 64-bit version, it is listed in the Value column. If not, then it is a 32-bit version by default.
Processor - Find the processor module to determine if the CPU is a 64-bit CPU, such as 'ia64'. This is an Itanium 64-bit CPU.

Windows Vista
Method 1
1.Click Start Start button , type system in the Start Search box, and then click system in the Programs list.
2.The operating system appears as follows:
•For a 64-bit version operating system: 64-bit Operating System appears for the System type under System.
•For a 32-bit version operating system: 32-bit Operating System appears for the System type under System.
Method 2
1.Click Start Start button , type system in the Start Search box, and then click System Information in the Programs list.
2.The operating system appears as follows:
•For a 64-bit version operating system: x64-based PC appears for the System type under Item.
•For a 32-bit version operating system: x86-based PC appears for the System type under Item.

Microsoft Windows XP Professional
Method 1
1.Click Start, click Run, type sysdm.cpl, and then click OK.
2.Click the General tab. The operating system appears as follows:
•For a 64-bit version operating system: Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition Version <> appears under System.
•For a 32-bit version operating system: Microsoft Windows XP Professional Version<> appears under System.
Note is a placeholder for a year.
Method 2
1.Click Start, click Run, type winmsd.exe, and then click OK.
2.In the details pane, locate Processor under Item. Note the value.
•If the value that corresponds to Processor starts with x86, the computer is running a 32-bit version of the Windows operating system.
•If the value that corresponds to Processor starts with ia64 or AMD64, the computer is running a 64-bit version of the Windows operating system.

Microsoft Windows Server 2003
Method 1
1.Click Start, click Run, type sysdm.cpl, and then click OK.
2.Click the General tab. The operating system appears as follows:
•For a 64-bit version operating system: Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Enterprise x64 Edition appears under System.
•For a 32-bit version operating system: Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition appears under System.
Method 2
1.Click Start, click Run, type winmsd.exe, and then click OK.
2.In the details pane, locate Processor under Item. Note the value.
•If the value that corresponds to Processor starts with x86, the computer is running a 32-bit version of the Windows operating system.
•If the value that corresponds to Processor starts with EM64T or ia64, the computer is running a 64-bit version of the Windows operating system.

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HTML Basics

Versions of HTML
HTML 1.0 -->> HTML 2.0-->>HTML 3.0 -->> HTML 3.2 -->> HTML 4.0 -->>HTML 4.01-->>XHTML 1.0
What is DTD ?
A DTD in an XML or HTML document provides a list of the elements, attributes, comments, notes, and entities contained in the document. It also indicates their relationship to one another within the document. In other words, a DTD is the grammar of an XML or HTML document.
Purpose of a DTD
When using a DTD for an XML document (including XHTML), the DTD is there to provide structure for your documents. It is easy to write an XML document, but without the DTD, it has no syntactic meaning to the computer. For example, if you come across this portion of an XML document:
"<"address">"
"<"street">"123 Any Street"<"/street">"
"<"city">"Giridar"<"/city">" "<"state">"AP"<"/state">"
"<"/address">"
While you would know it was an address, you wouldn't know whether it was an address the computer was supposed to create from a database table, if that address was for mailing, and other things. The computer, on the other hand, wouldn't see this as anything more than a string of text. If you viewed it in an XML browser, you might not get any errors, but you also wouldn't get a very interesting or useful page.
In other articles, we'll explore the inner workings of a DTD, and examine the elements that make up a DTD. You'll learn what an element, attribute, entity, and notation is and how to use them within your own DTDs. Plus, you'll learn how to read other DTDs so that you can use them in your own XML documents.
Using DIV Tag
"<"div">" Description:
The "<"div">" element defines logical divisions within the document. This means that when you use a "<"div">" element, you are indicating that the enclosed content is a specific section of the page. The "<"div">" element is typically used in XHTML+CSS documents to position portions of the page.
The "<"div">" tag is a block-level element.
"<"div">" Web Browser Support:
• Netscape 2, 3, 4, 6, 7
• Mozilla 1
• Firefox 1
• Internet Explorer 3, 4, 5, 6
• Opera 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
• Safari 1
• WebTV/MSN TV
• AvantGo Palm OS
• AvantGo Windows CE
• HTML 4.0
• XHTML 1.0: XHTML Text Module

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Oracle Basic FAQ's

Wonderful Oracle Faqs are in the following links
Link 1

1. Difference between Instance and Database?
The terms instance and database are closely related, but don't refer to the same thing. The database is the set of files where application data (the reason for a database) and meta data is stored. An instance is the software (and memory) that Oracle uses to manipulate the data in the database. In order for the instance to be able to manipulate that data, the instance must open the database. A database can be opened (or mounted) by more than one instance; however, an instance can open at most one database.
2. How to connect to new database in oracle?
sqlplus username/password@connect_identifier
SQL> connect username/password@connect_identifier
To hide your password, enter the CONNECT command in the form:
SQL> connect username@connect_identifier
You will be prompted to enter your password.
In windows another ex usage :
SQL> connect sys@connect_identifier as sysdba
Enterpassword :
Connected.
3. How to create a new user in a particular database?
CREATE USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY password;
CREATE USER uwclass IDENTIFIED BY uwclass;
CREATE USER user IDENTIFIED {BY password |
EXTERNALLY}
4. How to alter a user?
ALTER USER sidney IDENTIFIED BY second_2nd_pwd DEFAULT TABLESPACE exmple;
ALTER USER sh PROFILE new_profile;
ALTER USER sh DEFAULT ROLE ALL EXCEPT dw_manager;
ALTER USER app_user1 IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY AS 'CN=tom,O=oracle,C=US';
ALTER USER sidney PASSWORD EXPIRE;
ALTER USER sh TEMPORARY TABLESPACE tbs_grp_01;
ALTER USER app_user1 GRANT CONNECT THROUGH sh WITH ROLE warehouse_user;
ALTER USER app_user1 REVOKE CONNECT THROUGH sh;
ALTER USER sully GRANT CONNECT THROUGH OAS1 AUTHENTICATED USING PASSWORD;
5. How to see existing users in Oracle Database?
select name from sys.user$;
select username,password from dba_users;
6. How to change the existing user password in the present oracle database?
alter user myuser identified by my!supersecretpassword;
grant connect to myuser identified by my!supersecretpassword
update sys.user$ set password='F894844C34402B67' where name='SCOTT'; (restart of the database necessary)
SQL*Plus command: password or password username
7. How to launch the database configuration assistant tool in Oracle?
Go to $ORACLEHOME/bin
And run the “dbca” binary.
/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/Db_1/bin/dbca
8.Oracle Versions
Oracle products have historically followed their own release-numbering and naming conventions. With the Oracle RDBMS 10g release, Oracle Corporation started standardizing all current versions of its major products using the "10g" label, although some sources continued to refer to Oracle Applications Release 11i as Oracle 11i. Major database-related products and some of their versions include:
• Oracle Application Server 10g (also known as "Oracle AS 10g"): a middleware product;
• Oracle Applications Release 11i (aka Oracle e-Business Suite, Oracle Financials or Oracle 11i): a suite of business applications;
• Oracle Developer Suite 10g (9.0.4);
• Oracle JDeveloper 10g: a Java integrated development environment;
Since version 7, Oracle's RDBMS release numbering has used the following codes:
• Oracle7: 7.0.16 — 7.3.4
• Oracle8 Database: 8.0.3 — 8.0.6
• Oracle8i Database Release 1: 8.1.5.0 — 8.1.5.1
• Oracle8i Database Release 2: 8.1.6.0 — 8.1.6.3
• Oracle8i Database Release 3: 8.1.7.0 — 8.1.7.4
• Oracle9i Database Release 1: 9.0.1.0 — 9.0.1.5 (Latest current patchset as of December 2003)
• Oracle9i Database Release 2: 9.2.0.1 — 9.2.0.8 (Latest current patchset as of April 2007)
• Oracle Database 10g Release 1: 10.1.0.2 — 10.1.0.5 (Latest current patchset as of February 2006)
• Oracle Database 10g Release 2: 10.2.0.1 — 10.2.0.3 (Latest current patchset as of November 2006)
• Oracle Database 11g Release 1: 11.1.0.6 — no patchset available as of October 2007
The version numbering syntax within each release follows the pattern: major.maintenance.application-server.component-specific.platform-specific.
For example, "10.2.0.1 for 64-bit Solaris" means: 10th major version of Oracle, maintenance level 2, Oracle Application Server (OracleAS) 0, level 1 for Solaris 64-bit.

9. How to see exixsting Oracle Version on the system ?
1)select * from v$version;
10.How do we know which version of oracle we are using ?
I need to know whether it is 32 bit Or 64 bit.

From the unix prompt enter , then enter
bash-2.05$ file oracle
a. A 32 bit oracle server will return:
oracle: ELF 32-bit MSB executable SPARC Version 1,
dynamically linked, not stripped.

b. A 64 bit oracle server will return:
oracle: ELF 64-bit MSB executable SPARCV9 Version 1,
dynamically linked, not stripped.

11.How to see the Patches applied on existing Oracle

$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch lsinventory

opatch does not list the patches applied on DB. it lists the interim patches applied on oracle binaries.

the patched applied on DB are listed with
SQL> select * from registry$history;



How to create a password policy to not to use the used password for any users?
CREATE PROFILE krish LIMIT
 PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME UNLIMITED
 PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX 10;COMMIT;
 /* when a user is assigned with above policy he cant reuse the password again */

-- Add user CDSSCHEMA. This MUST exist for Oracle schema creation.
-- CDS explicitly addresses the schema, and they way Oracle
-- names a schema is by the user name that creates it.
-- The password should be changed from the default value 'tivoli'.

CREATE USER CDSSCHEMA
  IDENTIFIED BY oracle
  DEFAULT TABLESPACE cds_ts123
  TEMPORARY TABLESPACE cds_temp_ts123
  QUOTA UNLIMITED ON cds_ts123
  PROFILE krish;
COMMIT;

The above will create a user called CDSSCHEMA and the he will be under profile krish and hence he cant re-use the same password again.
GRANT CONNECT, RESOURCE, ALTER SESSION, CREATE SEQUENCE, CREATE SESSION,
      CREATE SYNONYM, CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, UNLIMITED TABLESPACE
  TO CDSSCHEMA
IDENTIFIED BY oracle ;
COMMIT;
the above will through error because of the not to use used passwords policy.
/* GRANT will reset the passowrd to new one , it will change the existing password if we specify identified by is given */
 Error sample
GRANT CONNECT, RESOURCE, ALTER SESSION, CREATE SEQUENCE, CREATE SESSION,
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-28007: the password cannot be reused

How to avoid overlapping of  columns when working on SQL prompts (DOS/UNIX )?
SQL> set wrap off


How to upgrade Oracle 9i(or lower) version to 10g ?

Oracle 9i to 10g

ORcle 9i to 10g upgrade.pdf


How do I execute an SQL script file in SQLPlus?
To execute a script file in SQLPlus, type @ and then the file name.

SQL >  @{file}

For example, if your file was called script.sql, you'd type the following command at the SQL prompt:

SQL >  @script.sql

The above command assumes that the file is in the current directory. (ie: the current directory is usually the directory that you were located in before you launched SQLPlus.)

If you need to execute a script file that is not in the current directory, you would type:

SQL >  @{path}{file}

For example:

SQL >  @/oracle/scripts/script.sql

This command would run a script file called script.sql that was located in the /oracle/scripts directory.

what does i stands for in oracle 8i and oracle 9i ?
i stands for internet in oracle 8i and 9i

What does g stands for in oracle 10g ?
g stands for grid technology in Oracle 10g.
from 10g onwards oracle supports grid architecture.

How to see the existing constrains applied on a table columns?

select constraint_name, constraint_type from user_constraints where table_name='';

Ex : table name : call_qr_nortel_active
select constraint_name, constraint_type from user_constraints where table_name='call_qr_nortel_active';

what is this grid computing ? 
[1] [2] [3] [pdf] [4]

Write a typical insert command to put system date as the date column data ?


insert into call_qr_nortel_active values(sysdate,1,'cProbe:15','iProbe:30','3215551234','3215551234','192.168.2.10:',
'192.18.2.10:','11-APR-2008',12,'E1:30',999,'192.168.2.10:160','192.168.2.10:460',70,
8,41,33,3,5,999,4,33,600,999,'92.168.3.10:48160','192.168.3.10:49160',
54,23,45,33,5,23,999,6,33,5000,677,'unknown data value',
33,'16:40',4,3);

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Short-hand form of communication in chating. (chat JARGANS)

Many of my friends ask me what is BRB for the first time. If you do not interact online, chances are that you will not know most of the terms like IMO, BTW, CU, OO etc. Well don’t worry... You have dropped in the right place... Check this site that contains hundreds of such short forms used in conversation as a sort of short-hand form of communication.
URL to find meaning of your JARGON
here is my own list
AKA = Also Known As
ASAP = As Soon As Possible
ASL = Age/Sex/Location
BRB= Be Right Back
CU = See You
CUL8R = See You Later
FYI = For Your Information
IMHO = In My Humble Opinion
IOW = In Other Words
K = Ok
LOL = laughing out loud
MYOB = mind your own business
RSVP = Repondez, s'il vous plait (Respond, please)
W/O = without." W/ means "with."
WTG = way to go
TTYL=Talk To You Later

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Corporate language ....

1."We will do it" means" You will do it"

2."You have done a great job" means" More work to be given to you"

3."We are working on it" means" We have not yet started working on the same"

4."Tomorrow first thing in the morning" means" Its not
getting done "At least not tomorrow!".

5."After discussion we will decide-I am very open to views"
means" I have already decided, I will tell you what to do"

6."There was a slight miscommunication" means" We had actually lied"

7."Lets call a meeting and discuss" means" I have no time now, will talk later"

8."We can always do it" means" We actually cannot do the same on time"

9."We are on the right track but there needs to be a slight
extension of the deadline" means "The project is screwed up, we cannot
deliver on time."

10."We had slight differences of opinion "means" We had actually fought"

11."Make a list of the work that you do and let's see how I
can help you" means" Anyway you have to find a way out no help from me"

12."You should have told me earlier" means" Well even if
you told me earlier that would have made hardly any difference!"

13."We need to find out the real reason" means" Well I will tell you where your fault is"

14."Well Family is important, your leave is always granted.
Just ensure that the work is not affected," means," Well you know..."

15."We are a team," means," I am not the only one to be blamed"

16."That's actually a good question" means "I do not know anything about it"

17."All the Best" means" You are in trouble"

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156 Useful Run Commands ....

To Access….
Run Command

Accessibility Controls
access.cpl

Accessibility Wizard
accwiz

Add Hardware Wizard
hdwwiz.cpl

Add/Remove Programs
appwiz.cpl

Administrative Tools
control admintools

Adobe Acrobat (if installed)
acrobat

Adobe Designer (if installed)
acrodist

Adobe Distiller (if installed)
acrodist

Adobe ImageReady (if installed)
imageready

Adobe Photoshop (if installed)
photoshop

Automatic Updates
wuaucpl.cpl

Bluetooth Transfer Wizard
fsquirt

Calculator
calc

Certificate Manager
certmgr.msc

Character Map
charmap

Check Disk Utility
chkdsk

Clipboard Viewer
clipbrd

Command Prompt
cmd

Component Services
dcomcnfg

Computer Management
compmgmt.msc

Control Panel
control

Date and Time Properties
timedate.cpl

DDE Shares
ddeshare

Device Manager
devmgmt.msc

Direct X Control Panel (If Installed)*
directx.cpl

Direct X Troubleshooter
dxdiag

Disk Cleanup Utility
cleanmgr

Disk Defragment
dfrg.msc

Disk Management
diskmgmt.msc

Disk Partition Manager
diskpart

Display Properties
control desktop

Display Properties
desk.cpl

Display Properties (w/Appearance Tab Preselected)
control color

Dr. Watson System Troubleshooting Utility
drwtsn32

Driver Verifier Utility
verifier

Event Viewer
eventvwr.msc

Files and Settings Transfer Tool
migwiz

File Signature Verification Tool
sigverif

Findfast
findfast.cpl

Firefox (if installed)
firefox

Folders Properties
control folders

Fonts
control fonts

Fonts Folder
fonts

Free Cell Card Game
freecell

Game Controllers
joy.cpl

Group Policy Editor (XP Prof)
gpedit.msc

Hearts Card Game
mshearts

Help and Support
helpctr

HyperTerminal
hypertrm

Iexpress Wizard
iexpress

Indexing Service
ciadv.msc

Internet Connection Wizard
icwconn1

Internet Explorer
iexplore

Internet Properties
inetcpl.cpl

Internet Setup Wizard
inetwiz

IP Configuration (Display Connection Configuration)
ipconfig /all

IP Configuration (Display DNS Cache Contents)
ipconfig /displaydns

IP Configuration (Delete DNS Cache Contents)
ipconfig /flushdns

IP Configuration (Release All Connections)
ipconfig /release

IP Configuration (Renew All Connections)
ipconfig /renew

IP Configuration (Refreshes DHCP & Re-Registers DNS)
ipconfig /registerdns

IP Configuration (Display DHCP Class ID)
ipconfig /showclassid

IP Configuration (Modifies DHCP Class ID)
ipconfig /setclassid

Java Control Panel (If Installed)
jpicpl32.cpl

Java Control Panel (If Installed)
javaws

Keyboard Properties
control keyboard

Local Security Settings
secpol.msc

Local Users and Groups
lusrmgr.msc

Logs You Out Of Windows
logoff

Malicious Software Removal Tool
mrt

Microsoft Access (if installed)
access.cpl

Microsoft Chat
winchat

Microsoft Excel (if installed)
excel

Microsoft Frontpage (if installed)
frontpg

Microsoft Movie Maker
moviemk

Microsoft Paint
mspaint

Microsoft Powerpoint (if installed)
powerpnt

Microsoft Word (if installed)
winword

Microsoft Syncronization Tool
mobsync

Minesweeper Game
winmine

Mouse Properties
control mouse

Mouse Properties
main.cpl

Nero (if installed)
nero

Netmeeting
conf

Network Connections
control netconnections

Network Connections
ncpa.cpl

Network Setup Wizard
netsetup.cpl

Notepad
notepad

Nview Desktop Manager (If Installed)
nvtuicpl.cpl

Object Packager
packager

ODBC Data Source Administrator
odbccp32.cpl

On Screen Keyboard
osk

Opens AC3 Filter (If Installed)
ac3filter.cpl

Outlook Express
msimn

Paint
pbrush

Password Properties
password.cpl

Performance Monitor
perfmon.msc

Performance Monitor
perfmon

Phone and Modem Options
telephon.cpl

Phone Dialer
dialer

Pinball Game
pinball

Power Configuration
powercfg.cpl

Printers and Faxes
control printers

Printers Folder
printers

Private Character Editor
eudcedit

Quicktime (If Installed)
QuickTime.cpl

Quicktime Player (if installed)
quicktimeplayer

Real Player (if installed)
realplay

Regional Settings
intl.cpl

Registry Editor
regedit

Registry Editor
regedit32

Remote Access Phonebook
rasphone

Remote Desktop
mstsc

Removable Storage
ntmsmgr.msc

Removable Storage Operator Requests
ntmsoprq.msc

Resultant Set of Policy (XP Prof)
rsop.msc

Scanners and Cameras
sticpl.cpl

Scheduled Tasks
control schedtasks

Security Center
wscui.cpl

Services
services.msc

Shared Folders
fsmgmt.msc

Shuts Down Windows
shutdown

Sounds and Audio
mmsys.cpl

Spider Solitare Card Game
spider

SQL Client Configuration
cliconfg

System Configuration Editor
sysedit

System Configuration Utility
msconfig

System File Checker Utility (Scan Immediately)
sfc /scannow

System File Checker Utility (Scan Once At Next Boot)
sfc /scanonce

System File Checker Utility (Scan On Every Boot)
sfc /scanboot

System File Checker Utility (Return to Default Setting)
sfc /revert

System File Checker Utility (Purge File Cache)
sfc /purgecache

System File Checker Utility (Set Cache Size to size x)
sfc /cachesize=x

System Information
msinfo32

System Properties
sysdm.cpl

Task Manager
taskmgr

TCP Tester
tcptest

Telnet Client
telnet

Tweak UI (if installed)
tweakui

User Account Management
nusrmgr.cpl

Utility Manager
utilman

Windows Address Book
wab

Windows Address Book Import Utility
wabmig

Windows Backup Utility (if installed)
ntbackup

Windows Explorer
explorer

Windows Firewall
firewall.cpl

Windows Magnifier
magnify

Windows Management Infrastructure
wmimgmt.msc

Windows Media Player
wmplayer

Windows Messenger
msmsgs

Windows Picture Import Wizard (need camera connected)
wiaacmgr

Windows System Security Tool
syskey

Windows Update Launches
wupdmgr

Windows Version (to show which version of windows)
winver

Windows XP Tour Wizard
tourstart

Wordpad
write
How to connect to remote box
mstsc -v: 9.196.131.173 /console

How to controll the servoces not to start in the start up of windows ?
go to run and type
msconfig
go to services tab and edit the status.
services.msc is another solution

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Great Indians

ARYABHATT (476 CE) MASTER ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN

Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur ( Bihar ), Aryabhatt's intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of mathematics and astronomy. In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam." He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory. He is also acknowledged for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and the sine table in trigonometry. Centuries later, in 825 CE, the Arab mathematician, Mohammed Ibna Musa credited the value of Pi to the Indians, "This value has been given by the Hindus." And above all, his most spectacular contribution was the concept of zero without which modern computer technology would have been non-existent. Aryabhatt was a colossus in the field of mathematics.
BHASKARACHARYA II
(1114-1183 CE)


GENIUS IN ALGEBRA
Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya's work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality. His renowned mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalled and a memorial to his profound intelligence. Its translation in several languages of the world bear testimony to its eminence. In his treatise " Siddhant Shiromani " he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. In the " Surya Siddhant " he makes a note on the force of gravity: "Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction." Bhaskaracharya was the first to discover gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton . He was the champion among mathematicians of ancient and medieval India . His works fired the imagination of Persian and European scholars, who through research on his works earned fame and popularity.
ACHARYA KANAD
(600 BCE)


FOUNDER OF ATOMIC THEORY
As the founder of " Vaisheshik Darshan "- one of six principal philosophies of India - Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwarika in Gujarat . He was the pioneer expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul. He says, "Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules." His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2500 years before John Dalton . Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other. The eminent historian, T.N. Colebrook , has said, "Compared to the scientists of Europe , Kanad and other Indian scientists were the global masters of this field."
NAGARJUNA (100 CE)

WIZARD OF CHEMICAL SCIENCE
He was an extraordinary wizard of science born in the nondescript village of Baluka in Madhya Pradesh . His dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like " Ras Ratnakar ," "Rashrudaya" and "Rasendramangal" are his renowned contributions to the science of chemistry. Where the medieval alchemists of England failed, Nagarjuna had discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into gold. As the author of medical books like "Arogyamanjari" and "Yogasar," he also made significant contributions to the field of curative medicine. Because of his profound scholarliness and versatile knowledge, he was appointed as Chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda . Nagarjuna's milestone discoveries impress and astonish the scientists of today.
ACHARYA CHARAK
(600 BCE)

FATHER OF MEDICINE
Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the " Charak Samhita ", is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda. His principles, diagoneses, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennia. When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe , Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and enquiries the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc. In the " Charak Samhita " he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants. He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body. He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences. He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Hippocratic oath. Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak made landmark contributions to Ayurvedal. He forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.
ACHARYA SUSHRUT (600 BCE)

FATHER OF PLASTIC SURGERY
A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of medical science. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sudhrut details the first ever surgery procedures in " Sushrut Samhita ," a unique encyclopedia of surgery. He is venerated as the father of plastic surgery and the science of anesthesia. When surgery was in its infancy in Europe , Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose) and other challenging operations. In the " Sushrut Samhita ," he prescribes treatment for twelve types of fractures and six types of dislocations. His details on human embryology are simply amazing. Sushrut used 125 types of surgical instruments including scalpels, lancets, needles, Cathers and rectal speculums; mostly designed from the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a number of stitching methods; the use of horse's hair as thread and fibers of bark. In the " Sushrut Samhita ," and fibers of bark. In the " Sushrut Samhita ," he details 300 types of operations. The ancient Indians were the pioneers in amputation, caesarian and cranial surgeries. Acharya Sushrut was a giant in the arena of medical science.
VARAHAMIHIR (499-587 CE)

EMINENT ASTROLOGER AND ASTRONOMERA
renowned astrologer and astronomer who was honored with a special decoration and status as one of the nine gems in the court of King Vikramaditya in Avanti ( Ujjain ). Varahamihir's book "panchsiddhant" holds a prominent place in the realm of astronomy. He notes that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight. In the " Bruhad Samhita " and " Bruhad Jatak ," he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees. The rishi-scientist survives through his unique contributions to the science of astrology and astronomy.

ACHARYA PATANJALI (200 BCE)


FATHER OF YOGA
The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices. Acharya Patanjali , the founder, hailed from the district of Gonda (Ganara) in Uttar Pradesh . He prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness. Acharya Patanjali 's 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body. Yoga has eight limbs where Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyan and dharna. The Science of Yoga has gained popularity because of its scientific approach and benefits. Yoga also holds the honored place as one of six philosophies in the Indian philosophical system. Acharya Patanjali will forever be remembered and revered as a pioneer in the science of self-discipline, happiness and self-realization.
ACHARYA BHARADWAJ (800 BCE)

PIONEER OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY
Acharya Bharadwaj had a hermitage in the holy city of Prayag and was an ordent apostle of Ayurveda and mechanical sciences. He authored the " Yantra Sarvasva " which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has described three categories of flying machines: 1.) One that flies on earth from one place to another. 2.) One that travels from one planet to another. 3.) And One that travels from one universe to another. His designs and descriptions have impressed and amazed aviation engineers of today. His brilliance in aviation technology is further reflected through techniques described by him:
1.) Profound Secret: The technique to make a flying machine invisible through the application of sunlight and wind force.
2.) Living Secret: The technique to make an invisible space machine visible through the application of electrical force.
3.) Secret of Eavesdropping: The technique to listen to a conversation in another plane.
4.) Visual Secrets: The technique to see what's happening inside another plane.
Through his innovative and brilliant discoveries, Acharya Bharadwaj has been recognized as the pioneer of aviation technology.
ACHARYA KAPIL (3000 BCE)


FATHER OF COSMOLOGY
Celebrated as the founder of Sankhya philosophy, Acharya Kapil is believed to have been born in 3000 BCE to the illustrious sage Kardam and Devhuti. He gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers - incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies, he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology. Because of his extrasensory observations and revelations on the secrets of creation, he is recognized and saluted as the Father of Cosmology.

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HIDDEN PROGRAMS OF WINDOWS Operating System !!!!

Some of the Hidden Programs In Windows Which you weren't Aware of

1- Private Character Editor
This program is for designing icons and Characters(Alphapet)
Click :start
Then :run
type :EUDCEDIT
.................................................................................................................................................
2- iExpress
This Program is for converting your files to EXCUTABLE files
Click : start
Then : run
type : iexpress
.................................................................................................................................................
3-Disk Cleanup
This program use! d for cleaning harddisk to offer space
Click : start
Then : run
type : cleanmgr
.................................................................................................................................................
4-Dr Watson
This program Is for repairing problems in Windows
Click : start
Then : run
type : drwtsn32
.................................................................................................................................................
5-Windows Media Player 5.1
Opens the old media player
Click : start
Then : run
type : mplay32
..........................................................................................................................................!
Program ............. CODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Character Map = charmap

DirectX diagnosis = dxdiag

Object Packager = packager

System Monitor = perfmon

Program Manager = progman

Remote Access phone book = rasphone

Registry Editor = regedt32

File siganture verification tool = sigverif

Volume Control = sndvol32

System Configuration Editor = sysedit

Syskey = syskey

microsoft Telnet Client = telnet

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Words of wisdom for new brides and grooms !!!!!!!

You can use these romantic quotations as wedding toasts, but there are many other ways to use them too. Try adding one to a gift tag or card or, for a romantic touch, write some out and put one in an envelope for each night of the couples honeymoon. If you're in the bridal party, consider adding a quote or two to the wedding program or handing a different one out with each of the wedding favors. We're sure you'll think of great ways of your own to use these wonderful words of wisdom.

The most precious possession
that ever comes to a man in this world
is a woman's heart.
-- J. G. Holland
Wishing you
A house full of sunshine,
Hearts full of cheer,
Love that grows deeper
each day of the year.
-- from an old Welsh blessing
One word frees us
of all the weight and pain of life;
That word is love.
-- Sophocles
We are born for love.
It is the principle
of existence
and its only end.
-- Benjamin Disraeli
In as much as love grows in you,
so in you beauty grows.
For love
is the beauty of the soul.
-- St. Augustine
Love is like a rose,
the joy of all the earth...
Love is like a lovely rose,
the world's delight.
-- Christina Rossetti
Life is to be fortified by many friendships.
To love, and to be loved, is the greatest
happiness of existence.
-- Sydney Smith
Love is not getting, but giving.
-- Henry van Dyke
May your joys be as bright as the morning,
your years of happiness
as numerous as the stars in the heavens,
and your troubles but shadows
that fade in the sunlight of love.
-- An Old English Blessing
Nothing is sweeter than love;
nothing stronger, nothing higher,
nothing wider, nothing happier,
nothing fuller, nothing better
in heaven and earth...
love flies, runs, and rejoices;
it is free and nothing can hold it back.
-- Thomas a Kempis
God, the best maker of all marriages,
combine your hearts in one,
your realms in one.
-- Shakespeare
True love's the gift which God has
given
To man alone beneath the heaven...
It is the secret sympathy,
The silver link, the silken tie,
Which heart to heart, and mind to mind,
In body and in soul can bind.
-- Sir Walter Scott
We do not wish you joy without sorrow
Nor endless day without the healing
dark,
Nor brilliant sun without the restful
shadow,
Nor tides that never turn against your
bark.
We wish you love, and strength, and
faith, and wisdom,
Goods, gold enough to help some
needy one,
We wish you songs, but also blessed
silence,
And God's sweet peace when every
day is done.
-- Dorothy Nell McDonald
From every human being there rises a
light
that reaches straight to heaven. And
when
two souls that are destined to be
together find
each other, their streams of light flow
together,
and a single brighter light goes forth
from their united being.
-- Baal Shem Tov
Love feels no burden, thinks nothing of
trouble, attempts what is above its
strength, pleads no excuse of
impossibility
It is therefore able to undertake all
things.
-- St. Thomas Aquinas
Love comforteth, like sunshine after
rain.
-- Shakespeare
A marriage...makes of two fractional
lives a whole;
it gives to two purposeless lives
a work, and doubles the strength
of each to perform it;
it gives to two
questioning natures
a reason for living,
and something to live for;
it will give a new gladness
to the sunshine,
a new fragrance to the flowers,
a new beauty to the earth,
and a new mystery to life.
-- Mark Twain
Happiness is only in loving.
-- Tolstoy
Any time that is not spent on love is
wasted.
-- Torquato Tasso
Heaven give you many, many merry days!
-- Shakespeare
Who can doubt that we exist only to
love?
We live not a moment exempt from its
influence.
-- Blaise Pascal
That love is all there is
Is all we know of love.
-- Emily Dickinson
Those who love deeply never grow old.
-- Sir Arthur Wing Pinero
The world is full of beauty
when the heart is full of love.
-- W. L. Smith
Love means the body, the soul,
the life, the entire being.
-- Guy de Maupassant
Love is the life of the soul.
It is the harmony of the universe.
W. E. Channing
Give all to love;
obey thy heart.
-- Emerson
Were there nothing else
For which to praise the heavens
but only love...
Only love were cause enough
for praise.
-- Tennyson

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New Year !!!!

Leaving dull days behind,
Hop on with wit, passion and mind.
Remember all your mistakes,
and try never repeating them at any stake.

Life as always is cool and alive,
Just enjoys its magic with a blind dive.
Never ever think you are alone,
You will surely find one whose feelings are your clone.

Happiness is to cherish for long,
Disturbing moments to be forgotten with a nice light song.
Your prosperity is what matters,
To all of them around you in clutters.

Time might be invincible,
But your thoughts are always serviceable.
Direct it in a perfect direction,
In the end it will be you who will find the maximum satisfaction.

This is what I hope all duration,
My friends will improve their perfection.
Wishing you a happy new start,
For a bright new morning with a pure heart.


Let luck be with you,
In this yet another year new.
Years gone can never be traced back,
But the days ahead can surely be targeted in your plan sack.

"WISHING YOU A HAPPY AND PROSPEROUS NEW YEAR!!!"

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How to reach ur destiny using MAPS ....on internet

To find your way around India (Even Inter State) -> http://in.maps.yahoo.com
In the Search bar type -> From , , to , ,
For example: From 17th H Main Road, Koramangala, Bangalore to Brigade Road, Bangalore

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How to enable/disable USB ports from Windows Operating System??

Type regedit in run and go to below path and change the value of start accordingly.

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\
Services\USBSTOR

Set value to 3 to enable
Set value to 4 to disable

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Tips on Filling your Vehicles...

ONLY BUY OR FILL UP YOUR CAR OR BIKKIE IN THE EARLY MORNING WHEN THE GROUND TEMPERATURE IS STILL COLD. Remember that all service stations have their storage tanks buried below ground. The colder the ground, the denser the fuel, when it gets warmer petrol expands, so buying in the afternoon or in the evening.... your litre is not exactly a litre.
In the petroleum business, the specific gravity and the temperature of the petrol, diesel and jet fuel, ethanol and other petroleum products play an important role. A 1degree rise in temperature is a big deal for this business. But the service stations do not have temperature compensation at the pumps.
WHEN YOU'RE FILLING UP, DO NOT SQUEEZE THE TRIGGER OF THE NOZZLE TO A FAST MODE. If you look, you will see that the trigger has three (3) stages: low, middle, and high. In slow mode, you should be pumping on low speed, thereby minimizing the vapours that are created, while you are pumping. All hoses at the pump have a vapour return. If you are pumping on the fast rate, some of the liquid that goes to your tank becomes vapour. Those vapours are being sucked up and back into the underground storage tank so you're getting less worth for your money.
ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT TIPS IS TO FILL UP WHEN YOUR TANK IS HALF FULL. The reason for this is, the more fuel you have in your tank, the less air occupying its empty space. Petrol evaporates faster than you can imagine. Petroleum storage tanks have an internal floating roof. This roof serves as zero clearance between the petrol and the atmosphere, so it minimizes the evaporation.
ANOTHER REMINDER, IF THERE IS A FUEL TRUCK PUMPING INTO THE STORAGE TANKS, WHEN YOU STOP TO BUY, DO NOT FILL UP - most likely the petrol/diesel is being stirred up as the fuel is being delivered, and you might pick up some of the dirt that normally settles on the bottom.
Hope, this will help you get the maximum value for your money.
DO SHARE THESE TIPS WITH OTHERS! LET’S SHARE INFORMATION AND BENEFIT ALL, FOR THE BETTER OF MANKIND.

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Forgotten Root Password - Suse 10.3 ???

Solution 1 :
Boot the machine.on the GRUB screen type init=/bin/sh then press enter
now the system will boot and without giving password you will be login as root.
from here, issue the passwd command to set the new password of root.
Solution 2 :
Boot the OS at selection of OS menu press e
then type single 1
press enter
and b to boot
now u r at init 1 level
passwd root
and reset the password
Solution 3 :
Insert the first cd of suse and boot from cd
type at #linux rescue
and follow the on screen instruction mount readwrite mount
read each instruction carefully
after then last
passwd root
reset the password

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We will rock you

We will rock you ....Song Lyrics

Buddy you’re a boy make a big noise
Playin’ in the street gonna be a big man some day
You got mud on yo’ face
You big disgrace
Kickin’ your can all over the place

We will we will rock you
We will we will rock you

Buddy you’re a young man hard man
Shoutin’ in the street gonna take on the world some day
You got blood on yo’ face
You big disgrace
Wavin’ your banner all over the place

We will we will rock you
We will we will rock you

Buddy you’re an old man poor man
Pleadin’ with your eyes gonna make you some peace some day

You got mud on your face
You big disgrace
Somebody better put you back in your place

History :
"We Will Rock You" is a song written by Brian May and recorded and performed by Queen. One version was used as the opening track on their 1977 album News of the World. This version consists of a stamping-clapping beat, and a power chorus, being somewhat of an anthem. The stamping effects were created by the band overdubbed the sounds of themselves stomping and clapping many times and adding delay effects to create a sound like many people were participating. When performed live, this version is usually followed by "We Are the Champions", another of the album's hits, as they were both made to lead into each other. On the 45 of the song's original vinyl record release, the song was actually the flip side of "We Are the Champions" in England, however the American record company requested to put the two songs together as a "double A side" because American radio stations were playing them back to back. This is a reason why the songs are often paired on the radio and at sporting events, where they are frequently played. The songs are also paired back to back on the album, as they were designed to run together and they are still played together to this day on American classic rock radio stations. Queen also performed the song in another arrangement (known as the "fast version"), which featured a faster tempo and a full guitar, bass and drums backing track throughout. The band would often open their live sets in the late 1970s and early 1980s with this version, as captured on their 1979 Live Killers double album, on Queen Rock Montreal (2007), and on the Queen on Fire - Live at the Bowl album released in 2004.
The "fast version" is available in a studio performance. In 1977, it was recorded for John Peel's show on BBC Radio 1. This version is on the 1992 Italian bootleg CD "Queen - We Will Rock You" (On Stage CD 12018). It is part of a longer cut that starts out with the slow version. In 2002, the fast version was officially released on a promo single distributed by the tabloid The Sun. The "fast" BBC studio version can also be found on King Biscuit Live: Best of, Vol. 1. Between the two versions, there is a brief cut of a female voice discussing Brahmanism, used in a BBC Radio documentary. Obviously an error, the band, however, thought it was "cool", and left it in.
Due to its prevalence in popular culture, "We Will Rock You" has been recognized by various authorities as being quite influential, including Rolling Stone, which ranked it #330 of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time in 2004, and also the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) which placed it at #146 on its list of Songs of the Century.

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UNIX Basic FAQ's


How to see Linux version or type?
1.cat /etc/issue
Welcome to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 (x86_64) - Kernel \r (\l).
2./etc/redhat-release
3.cat /etc/*release
How to see linux/unix versions in all Unix ?
1.For Redhat Linux boxes,
    # cat /etc/redhat-release
2.For SuSe Linux boxes,
    # cat /etc/SuSe-release
3.For Solaris boxes,
    # cat /etc/release
4.For AIX boxes,
    # oslevel –g
    # oslevel –r
ISA of an UNIX machine?(How to see OS bit level ?)

1)// Solaris ---- isainfo -v

2) // for hpux and linux ----- getconf WORD_BIT

3) // for AIX ----- getconf –a | grep KERNEL_BITS (or) getconf KERNEL_BITMODE

4) bootinfo -K

5)//HP-UX - ----- getconf KERNEL_BITS

32 bit or 64 bit??(How do we know the BIT level of Processor - Hardware?)

AIX ------- bootinfo -K getconf LONG_BIT (or) getconf HARDWARE_BITMODE

SOLARIS ------ isainfo -b

HPUX ------- getconf KERNEL_BITS

LINUX --------- getconf LONG_BIT

How to see RAM usage?

Solaris :  To see RAM : /usr/sbin/prtconf
                To see free ram : vmstat
Linux :     free -m  [ or ] top  [or] # cat /proc/meminfo
memory size in MB(memory is RAM size)
And Swap is SWAP size
HP-Ux : /usr/contrib/bin/machinfo.
To see HD space in HP UX 
For disk info, use ioscan -fnkC disk command then diskinfo command will give you info about each disk.
How to work with back space and options in HP-UX ?
Option 1: Use bash_hp binary
Option 2: stty -a
intr='^c'
stty intr '^c'
Option 3 :
Run the following in command line
exec stty erase "^H" kill "^U" intr "^C" eof "^D" susp "^Z"
How to see processor related details ?
Solaris  
/usr/platform/`uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag
How to increase tmp space in AIX ? 
chfs -a size=+1 /tmp

How to add new user ?
Solaris9
bash-3.00# useradd -d /export/home/kbabu -s /bin/ksh -m kbabu
64 blocks
bash-3.00# passwd kbabu
New Password:
Re-enter new Password:
passwd: password successfully changed for kbabu

How to find a word in all files in a directory ? (using grep)
1. grep root /etc/passwd  - Searches word root in passwd file and prints the line on console.
2. grep -r root /etc/ - Searches word root in all the files under /etc
3. grep -r -i root /etc/ -  Searches word root by ignoring case in all the files under /etc
4. awk '/gold/' coins.txt
5. find . -mount -type f -print0 | xargs -0 grep "something"- When there is any problem is searching words under file systems like /dev* this will help.
Reference : [1]
How to set line number in vi editor ? 
Press ESC and : set number

How to see the process and their child processes in a tree structure ? 
Linux :
 ps --forest -eaf
  and
 pstree -p
Solaris :
  ptree PID

How to delete a user in Solaris 9 ?
The userdel(1M) command is used to delete a user account. The user account is specified as a command-line argument. Only one other command-line argument is supported. This is -r, which is used to remove the home directory. The following shows deleting the user3 account:
# userdel -r user3

AIX

mkuser "pgrp=mysql" "groups=mysql" "shell=/usr/bin/ksh" "home=/opt/mysql" mysql
home dir == /opt/mysql

How to modify or create a user?
user kbabu
usermod

Command to show type of UNIX flavor?
uname –a

How to see the logged in user?
1>>$LOGNAME
2>>id

How to see running processes?
1>> top
2>> monitor
3>> prstat

How to see Virtual memory usage?
vmstat

Where is xclock installed on Soalris ?
/usr/X/bin/xclock

How to enable FTP on Solaris 10?
inetadm -e ftp
svcadm enable ftp

How to use Back space in AIX?
Shift + Backspace


Find and replace all in file in VI editor ?
 
 ESC : %s/first/second/g


How to send broad cast message to all current users of the machine?

wall hi

How to start FTP on LINUX?
Edit the file /etc/xinetd.d/wu-ftpd
changing the two lines to:
default: on
disabled = no
then run the command
etc/rc.d/init.d/xinetd restart
on RH linux AS4
# /etc/init.d/vsftpd start
Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: [ OK ]
how to give ftp for root
Configure FTP for root logins
Edit the files /etc/vsftpd.ftpusers and /etc/vsftpd.user_list and remove the 'root' line from each file.

How to enable telnet?
Edit the file /etc/xinetd.d/telnetd

changing the two lines to:

# default: on

disabled = no

then try doing this

/etc/rc.d/init.d/xinetd restart

cat /etc/passwd

vi /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers

vi /etc/vsftpd/user_list

vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

service vsftpd reload


How to set current working directory at your prompt?

PS1='\w $'

How to see patch level of the OS (solaris) ?

showrev -a

showrev -a | tee /opt/kbabu/a.txt


How to use SCP? (Secure Copy)

scp user@hsot1 a.txt user@host2:/osdb/jkdj/


How to made HP-UX easy?

exec stty erase "^H" kill "^U" intr "^C" eof "^D" susp "^Z"


How to empty or clear the contents of an existing UNIX file ?
The special file /dev/null can and does contain nothing. While most often used as a sink of nothingness, for example writing output to it that you don’t want to keep, it can be used as a source of nothingness, too. To replace the contents of the file XYZ.txt with nothing, you can use the command
cat /dev/null > XYZ.txt
This command makes sense as it is using standard UNIX redirection to place the contents of one file (a known empty one) to another file. Another way to do this, although a less obvious way and probably less readable in a shell script by others, is
> XYZ.txt
How to see common entries in two files?

sort file1 file2 | uniq –d

How to set time in Unix ?
  • date -s "2 OCT 2006 18:00:00"
  • date set="2 OCT 2006 18:00:00"
  •  date +%T -s "10:13:13"
 Use %p locale’s equivalent of either AM or PM, enter:
  • # date +%T%p -s "6:10:30AM"
  • # date +%T%p -s "12:10:30PM"
To sync the clock with hardware
  • # hwclock –show
  • # hwclock –systohc
How to install a package in Linux using RPM ? How do u uninstall ? how do u see the installed packages ?
Install:
rpm –ivh
Upgrade :
rpm -Uvh IBMJava2-142-ia32-SDK-1.4.2-12.0.i386.rpm
View :
nc041030:/opt/tivoli/ep/_uninst # rpm -qa | grep TIV
TIVguid-1.3.0-0
Remove :
rpm -evv TIVguid-1.3.0-0

How to install GCC on Linux ?
   1. wget ftp://mirrors.kernel.org/gnu/gcc/gcc-3.4.6/gcc-3.4.6.tar.bz2
Some how download the gcc-3.4.6.tar.bz2 or latest gcc for ur linux and place it in ur working directory.
   2. tar -jxf gcc-3.4.6.tar.bz2
   3. cd gcc-3.4.6
   4. ./configure
   5. make
   6. make install

How to mount files in Solaris 10?

mount -F nfs -o vers=3 172.22.21.2:/StarTeam /StarTeam

-----------

Mount –F/t nfs 172.22.21.2:/StarTeam /StarTeam

Sol: vi /etc/vfstab

172.22.21.2:/StarTeam - /StarTeam nfs - yes rw,hard

Li: vi /etc/fstab

172.22.21.2:/StarTeam - /StarTeam nfs - yes rw,hard




How to see IP from a host name or Host name from IP?

/usr/sbin/nslookup mercury

Server: 9.20.136.11

Address: 9.20.136.11#53




Name: mercury.hursley.ibm.com

Address: 9.180.210.217

Installing top?
pkgadd -d top-3.6.1-sol10-sparc-local

How to create NFS Sharing?
To be able to share a remote filesystem you have to share the remote filesystem.

To share the remote filesystem you need to modify
the /etc/dfs/dfstab file with
share -F nfs -o rw /filesystem
also modify the /etc/dfs/sharetab with
/filesystem nfs rw
then issue
shareall
make sure nfs daemon are running of the server
you could check by isseing
ps -ef | grep nfs
if it is not running you could start nfsd by issuing /etc/init.d/nfs.server start
on the client side, that is the side with no disk space
you need to mount the remote filesystem you could do this by issuing
mount (remote server):/usr/local /mount_point
Note:
/filesystem will be the filesytem you intend to share eg / /usr/local, /var, /export/home
so if you intend to share /usr/local your /etc/dfs/dfstab will look like
share -F nfs -o rw /usr/local
and /etc/dfs/sharetab will look like
/usr/local - nfs rw

How to add route between machines ?
To discover the Southbank Test Network you may need to add suitable routes:
A discovery from Hursley requires a route to 172.20.0.0/16 and 172.21.0.0/16 via 9.180.210.193
Note on Routing table on devtest22
A discovery from Southbank requires a route to 172.20.0.0/16 and 172.21.0.0/16 via 9.196.131.10
IP Route command examples would be:
Linux:
ip route add 172.20.0.0/16 via 9.196.131.10
Solaris:
route add 172.20.0.0/16 9.196.131.10
Windows:
route add 172.20.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 9.196.131.10
netstat -r
route add 10.100.20.1/24 172.22.23.43
add all the agetns of range 1-24 to the gateway with the server 43
route add 10.100.20.1 172.22.23.43

How to zip a folder in UNIX using tar ?
tar -cvf netcool.tar netcool/
gzip netcool.tar
or
tar -cvzf filename.tar.gz folder-name

How to run gunzip and tar at a time ?
gunzip -c C1H53EN.tar.gz | tar xf -
tar -xvfz file.tar.gz

How to get PID of a used port ?
AIX : for i in `ps -e|awk '{print $1}'`;do echo "UR PID :$i" ;procfiles $i |grep 1521;done
Solaris :
for i in `ps -e|awk '{print $1}'`;do echo "UR PID :$i" ;pfiles $i |grep ;done
ex :
for i in `ps -e|awk '{print $1}'`;do echo "UR PID :$i" ;pfiles $i |grep 1521;done

Solaris 2.9 AIX 5.2
pflags [-r] [pid | core] procflags [-r] [pid]
pcred [pid | core] proccred [pid]
pmap [-rxIF] [pid | core] procmap [-F] [pid]
pldd [-F] [pid | core] procldd [-F] [pid]
pstack [-F] [pid | core] procstack [-F] [pid]
pfiles [-F] [pid] procfiles [-nF] [pid]
ptime command [argument] Not available

How to see the folder occupied space on the disk ?
du -sh /opt/kbabu

How to know the last rebooted time of a solaris server ?
bash-2.05$ uptime
7:18am up 47 day(s), 23:50, 4 users, load average: 0.36, 0.56, 0.35

What is UMASK ?
UMASK is a Unix environment variable which automatically sets file permissions on newly created files.
The UMASK variable can be confusing to use, because it does work as a mask. In other words, you set the permissions that you do not want in the UMASK.
To calculate permissions which will result from specific UMASK values, subtract the UMASK from 666 for files and from 777 for directories.
If you want all files created with permissions of 666, set your UMASK to 000. Alternatively, if you want all files created with permissions of 000, set your UMASK to 666.
A reasonable value for UMASK is 022, which will cause files to be created with permissions of 644 (rw-r--r--) and directories to be created with permissions of 755 (rwxr-xr-x).
A more secure value for UMASK is 066, which will cause files to be created with permissions of 600 (rw-------) and directories to be created with permissions of 700 (rwx------).
UMASK is nomally defined in the .profile or .login user startup files.
usage :
bash-2.05$ umask
022
bash-2.05$ umask 077

How to extract cpio file in UNIX ?
cpio -idmv <>

IPV6
How to check the whether IPV6 is configured on Linux machine or not ?

[ -f /proc/net/if_inet6 ] && echo 'IPv6 ready system!' || echo 'No IPv6'

simply if we see "/sbin/ipconfig -a" output we will see some thing related IPV6 which itself confirms the IPV6 configuration

How to put process running on foreground to background and viceversa?

You have a process running on Unix terminal as follows ..
bash$./launchpad
to put it in back ground
hold ctrl+ z
It will be stopped and kept in stopped jobs
If u see jobs u can see that in stopped jobs list say
to bring it back to foreground
command : fg %1
assuming in the jobs list our job no is 1.


Find command usage?
find / -name Chapter1 -type f -print
This command searches through the root filesystem ("/") for the file named "Chapter1". If it finds the file, it prints the location to the screen.

find /usr -name Chapter1 -type f -print

This command searches through the "/usr" directory for the file named "Chapter1".

find /usr -name "Chapter*" -type f -print

This command searches through the "/usr" directory for all files that begin with the letters "Chapter". The filename can end with any other combination of characters.

This will match filenames such as "Chapter", "Chapter1", "Chapter1.bad", "Chapter_in_life".

find /usr/local -name "*.html" -type f -print

This command searches through the "/usr/local" directory for files that end with the extension ".html". These file locations are then printed to the screen.

find /usr/local -name "*.html" -type f
-exec chmod 644 {} \;

This command searches through the "/usr/local" directory for files that end with the extension ".html". When these files are found, their permission is changed to mode 644 (rw-r--r--).

find htdocs cgi-bin -name "*.cgi" -type f
-exec chmod 755 {} \;

This command searches through the "htdocs" and "cgi-bin" directories for files that end with the extension ".cgi". When these files are found, their permission is changed to mode 755 (rwxr-xr-x). This example shows that the find command can easily search through multiple sub-directories (htdocs, cgi-bin) at one time.

How to find the free disk space in Solaris ?
bash-3.00$ df -k
Filesystem 1024-blocks Free %Used Iused %Iused Mounted on
/dev/hd4 32768 4824 86% 2328 64% /
/dev/hd2 1998848 63540 97% 44252 69% /usr
/dev/hd9var 360448 335100 8% 524 1% /var
/dev/hd3 1048576 1040968 1% 127 1% /tmp
/proc - - - - - /proc
/dev/hd10opt 131072 45456 66% 3163 23% /opt
/dev/fslv00 156237824 156213640 1% 4 1% /space
netapp:/vol/home/kbabu 503316480 143701960 72% 3464308 17% /home/kbabu
bash-3.00$ pwd
/space
bash-3.00$ df -k .
Filesystem 1024-blocks Free %Used Iused %Iused Mounted on
/dev/fslv00 156237824 156213640 1% 4 1% /space

Where is make command installed in Solaris 10 ?
Generally it will be in
1.export PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin
2./usr/ccs/bin
3./usr/sfw/bin
How to reboot a AIX machine ?

shutdown -r

Download a file from a FTP server using WGET command ?

 wget https://cbrtp.tivlab.raleigh.ibm.com/brf/FB/agentsvc_1421/intel/BLD/WIN/build.out/com.ibm.tivoli.cas.agent.ismp/dist/NSaAUZPS-eQsL28dZcVTv/common_agent_1.4.2.1_201110051713_linux.tar --http-user xyz@in.ibm.com --http-passwd abc1234567
--05:28:06--  https://cbrtp.tivlab.raleigh.ibm.com/brf/FB/agentsvc_1421/intel/BLD/WIN/build.out/com.ibm.tivoli.cas.agent.ismp/dist/NSaAUZPS-eQsL28dZcVTv/common_agent_1.4.2.1_201110051713_linux.tar
           => `common_agent_1.4.2.1_201110051713_linux.tar'
Resolving cbrtp.tivlab.raleigh.ibm.com... 9.42.60.91
Connecting to cbrtp.tivlab.raleigh.ibm.com[9.42.60.91]:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 136,273,920 [application/x-tar]

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How to recover the Root Password in Soalris 10 ???

You need to have physical access to the machine's console.

Note the root partition;

Solaris uses /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0 on the Ultra5/10 and Blade 100 /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s0 for Blade 1000. Press the STOP and A keys simultaneously, or, on an ASCII terminal or emulator, send a ) to halt the operating system, if it's running.



Boot single-user from CD-ROM (boot cdrom -s) or network install/jumpstart server (boot net -s). For CD media use the CD-ROM labeled "Installation". I prom pssword is set you need to know it


Mount the root partition on "/a". "/a" is an empty mount point that exists at this stage of the installation procedure. For example:

#mount /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0 /a


If the mount command fails and since "/a" always exists, then you either typed in the wrong device, OR the system is seeing the root partition as something else.

Do a "ls /tmp/dev/dsk" and see what is there. "c0t6" things are the CD-ROM, what is left is what one needs to try. On a Blade 1000/2000, choose /dev/dsk/c1t1d0s0, and execute: #mount /dev/dsk/c1t1d0s0 /a


Set your terminal type so you can use a full-screen editor, such as vi. You can skip this step if you know how to use "ex" or "vi" from open mode.

If you're on a sun console, type "TERM=sun; export TERM"; If you are using an ascii terminal or terminal emulator on a PC for your console, set TERM to the terminal type for example: TERM=vt100; export TERM.

Edit the passwd file, /a/etc/shadow (or perhaps in older versions, /etc/passwd) and remove the encrypted password entry for root.


Type: "cd /; then "umount /a"


Reboot as normal in single-user mode ("boot -s"). The root account will not have a password. Give it a new one using the passwd command. PROM passwords: Naturally, you may not want anyone with physical access to the machine to be able to do the above to erase the root password. Suns have a security password mechanism in the PROM which can be set (this is turned off by default). The man page for the eeprom command describes this feature.

If security-mode is set to "command", the machine only be booted without the prom password from the default device (i.e. booting from CD-ROM or install server will require the prom password). Changing the root password in this case requires moving the default device (e.g. the boot disk) to a different SCSI target (or equivalent), and replacing it with a similarly bootable device for which the root password is known. If security-mode is set to full, the machine cannot be booted without the prom password, even from the default device; defeating this requires replacing the NVRAM on the motherboard. "Full" security has its drawbacks -- if, during normal operations, the machine is power-cycled (e.g. by a power outage) or halted (e.g. by STOP-A), it cannot reboot without the intervention of someone who knows the prom password.

Note : in solaris 10 go to /etc open shadow file and make the root entry look like as follows root : : xxxxx :

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Trip to Nandi Hills

On 3rd May 2008 we had been to Nandi Hills. Nandi Hills is called as Nandi Betta in Kannada I think. And It was a small trip in my mind since a long time. But I want to go to this place along with my very close friends, as they all stay in Hyderabad It took this time for me …Whole it is a wonderful place to visit ..That to travel by bike will be a joy for riders like me …
We were 6 people started on 3 bikes. Among 3, 2 bikes are brand new. Mine is Pulsar (definitely male …No doubt in pick up and race).And the other is cbz Xtreme. Near K R Puram, we enter into Hyderanad high way and it is straight road till Devana Halli. Our plan is to see the sunrise from the hill, so we planned to start around at 4:30 AM from Koramangala as Nandi Hills is around 70 KM (total distance to reach peak of hill from koramangala).We thought we will reach the Hill by 6 AM and we can enjoy the sun rise …but it is very common god is the moderator we cant plan ….it was due to very small reasons we started here at 5 AM and even the journey did not even speed due to lack of petrol in one of the bike and due to early morning no bunk was opened. At last we reached Nandi Hills top by 7:20 AM. Nandi Hills 20 KM from a village called “Devana Halli”.After crossing our new air port road and flyovers’ we will see this Village.
Though we missed to see the sunrise we really enjoyed the ride, fog and clouds. On the Hill entrance we paid around 75 Rs for bike parking as well as entrance ticket for all of us. We can see many monkeys on the hill. The first thing you see as soon as you enter is the Amrit Sarovar which is a small tank, nothing much to see here, so we moved on. Moving ahead we have spent some time in Kids Park. We had good time to take enough snaps with our creativity that to in Fog. We had good photos on fort too. When I saw the fort there I thought it was some king’s place long back. But after returning form the trip, I came to know that it was really Tippu Sultan Place years back , where he used to punish people by throwing people down from this place. The spot and the views it offered was just too breathe taking.Moving ahead we went to ‘Yoginandishwara Temple’. It was a shiva temple. We have seen some foreigners too here. They are the one really spent more time than us understanding the history more. It was a foreign girl and an Indian boy who spent really good time in investigating about the temple and history. By seeing this hybrid couple sitting at the deadly edge of this hill - immediately I got Ameer khan’s “Rang de Basanthi“movie scenes in my mind. No doubt Love is crazy and Lovers too Crazy.

After Enjoying all these beauty we started moving down around at 10:30 AM.I felt there were enough number of hotels like “Mayuri” etc. I observed many grape gardens and people selling good grapes in the road side directly plucking from the garden. We reached around 12 PM to Koramangala.

It was really a joyful moment in any body life when he/she touched the clouds …one will surely feel pleasant experience like this in the fog and Overall the Nandi hills is a good spot for picnic and for a day away from the city life. And it is an inexpensive way to chill out.

Suggestions:
· Please go by your vehicle (car or two-wheeler).
· Carry food items and drinks as it was too costly on the hill.
Note : Photos are in slide show …


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